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Stony Coral

The following table lists the species in this taxon assessed under the Singapore Red List, which is intended to be published in the third edition of the Singapore Red Data Book in future.

You may find information regarding the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), RDB2 and RDB3 conservation statuses. The IUCN conservation status is assessed globally while the RDB2 and RDB3 conservation statuses are assessed locally.

The information below is accurate as at the time of the listing on-line for the taxon.

Checklist of stony coral species from Singapore

No. Order Genus Species Common Name Global IUCN Status RDB2 Status RDB3 Status
1 Scleractinia Acanthastrea echinata Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
2 Scleractinia Acanthastrea rotundoflora Brain Coral NT Not Listed DD
3 Scleractinia Acropora abrotanoides LC Not Listed DD
4 Scleractinia Acropora aculeus Bottlebrush Coral VU Not Listed DD
5 Scleractinia Acropora acuminata VU Not Listed VU
6 Scleractinia Acropora anthocercis VU Not Listed VU
7 Scleractinia Acropora aspera Green Staghorn Coral VU Not Listed EN
8 Scleractinia Acropora austera NT Not Listed DD
9 Scleractinia Acropora cerealis LC Not Listed DD
10 Scleractinia Acropora chesterfieldensis LC Not Listed DD
11 Scleractinia Acropora cytherea Table Coral LC Not Listed DD
12 Scleractinia Acropora dendrum VU Not Listed DD
13 Scleractinia Acropora digitifera Staghorn Coral NT Not Listed EN
14 Scleractinia Acropora divaricata NT Not Listed DD
15 Scleractinia Acropora donei Purple-tipped Acropora VU Not Listed DD
16 Scleractinia Acropora elseyi Bottlebrush Coral LC Not Listed DD
17 Scleractinia Acropora florida NT Not Listed DD
18 Scleractinia Acropora glauca NT Not Listed DD
19 Scleractinia Acropora grandis LC Not Listed DD
20 Scleractinia Acropora granulosa Tubular Table Coral NT Not Listed DD
21 Scleractinia Acropora horrida Blue Staghorn Coral VU Not Listed DD
22 Scleractinia Acropora humilis Finger Coral NT Not Listed DD
23 Scleractinia Acropora hyacinthus Brush Coral NT Not Listed DD
24 Scleractinia Acropora intermedia Not Listed Not Listed DD
25 Scleractinia Acropora latistella LC Not Listed DD
26 Scleractinia Acropora longicyathus LC Not Listed DD
27 Scleractinia Acropora loripes Blue Tip Coral NT Not Listed DD
28 Scleractinia Acropora lutkeni NT Not Listed DD
29 Scleractinia Acropora microclados VU Not Listed DD
30 Scleractinia Acropora microphthalma Small Staghorn Coral LC Not Listed LC
31 Scleractinia Acropora millepora Plate Acropora NT Not Listed EN
32 Scleractinia Acropora muricata Staghorn Coral NT Not Listed LC
33 Scleractinia Acropora nana NT Not Listed DD
34 Scleractinia Acropora nasuta Branching Staghorn Coral NT Not Listed EN
35 Scleractinia Acropora palmerae VU Not Listed DD
36 Scleractinia Acropora polystoma VU Not Listed DD
37 Scleractinia Acropora pulchra LC Not Listed DD
38 Scleractinia Acropora robusta LC Not Listed DD
39 Scleractinia Acropora samoensis LC Not Listed DD
40 Scleractinia Acropora secale Purple Tip Acropora NT Not Listed DD
41 Scleractinia Acropora selago NT Not Listed DD
42 Scleractinia Acropora solitaryensis VU Not Listed DD
43 Scleractinia Acropora spicifera VU Not Listed EN
44 Scleractinia Acropora subglabra LC Not Listed EN
45 Scleractinia Acropora subulata LC Not Listed DD
46 Scleractinia Acropora tenuis NT Not Listed DD
47 Scleractinia Acropora valenciennesi LC Not Listed DD
48 Scleractinia Acropora valida LC Not Listed LC
49 Scleractinia Acropora verweyi VU Not Listed DD
50 Scleractinia Acropora willisae VU Not Listed DD
51 Scleractinia Alveopora allingi Net Coral VU Not Listed DD
52 Scleractinia Alveopora catalai Branching Flowerpot Coral NT Not Listed DD
53 Scleractinia Alveopora excelsa EN Not Listed DD
54 Scleractinia Alveopora fenestrata Flower Coral VU Not Listed DD
55 Scleractinia Alveopora marionensis VU Not Listed DD
56 Scleractinia Alveopora spongiosa NT Not Listed DD
57 Scleractinia Alveopora tizardi LC Not Listed DD
58 Scleractinia Astrea annuligera NT Not Listed DD
59 Scleractinia Astrea curta LC Not Listed DD
60 Scleractinia Astreopora cucullata VU Not Listed DD
61 Scleractinia Astreopora expansa NT Not Listed DD
62 Scleractinia Astreopora gracilis LC Not Listed NT
63 Scleractinia Astreopora incrustans VU Not Listed DD
64 Scleractinia Astreopora listeri Starflower Coral LC Not Listed NT
65 Scleractinia Astreopora myriophthalma Porous Star Coral LC Not Listed LC
66 Scleractinia Bernardpora stutchburyi Anemone Coral LC Not Listed LC
67 Scleractinia Caulastraea echinulata VU Not Listed NT
68 Scleractinia Caulastraea furcata LC Not Listed DD
69 Scleractinia Cladopsammia gracilis Not Listed Not Listed DD
70 Scleractinia Coelastrea aspera LC Not Listed LC
71 Scleractinia Coelastrea palauensis NT Not Listed DD
72 Scleractinia Coscinaraea columna LC Not Listed LC
73 Scleractinia Coscinaraea exesa Wrinkle Coral LC Not Listed DD
74 Scleractinia Ctenactis albitentaculata Feather Mushroom Coral NT Not Listed DD
75 Scleractinia Ctenactis crassa Feather Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed NT
76 Scleractinia Ctenactis echinata Feather Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed LC
77 Scleractinia Cycloseris costulata LC Not Listed DD
78 Scleractinia Cycloseris explanulata LC Not Listed DD
79 Scleractinia Cycloseris mokai LC Not Listed DD
80 Scleractinia Cycloseris vaughani LC Not Listed DD
81 Scleractinia Cyphastrea chalcidicum Meteor Corals LC Not Listed LC
82 Scleractinia Cyphastrea microphthalma Meteor Corals LC Not Listed LC
83 Scleractinia Cyphastrea serailia LC Not Listed LC
84 Scleractinia Danafungia horrida LC Not Listed DD
85 Scleractinia Danafungia scruposa LC Not Listed LC
86 Scleractinia Diploastrea heliopora Double-star Coral NT Not Listed LC
87 Scleractinia Dipsastraea amicorum Basket Coral LC Not Listed DD
88 Scleractinia Dipsastraea danai LC Not Listed DD
89 Scleractinia Dipsastraea favus LC Not Listed LC
90 Scleractinia Dipsastraea helianthoides NT Not Listed DD
91 Scleractinia Dipsastraea laxa NT Not Listed DD
92 Scleractinia Dipsastraea lizardensis NT Not Listed LC
93 Scleractinia Dipsastraea maritima NT Not Listed DD
94 Scleractinia Dipsastraea matthaii NT Not Listed LC
95 Scleractinia Dipsastraea maxima NT Not Listed DD
96 Scleractinia Dipsastraea mirabilis Not Listed Not Listed DD
97 Scleractinia Dipsastraea pallida Knob Coral LC Not Listed VU
98 Scleractinia Dipsastraea rotumana LC Not Listed DD
99 Scleractinia Dipsastraea speciosa LC Not Listed LC
100 Scleractinia Dipsastraea veroni NT Not Listed DD
101 Scleractinia Echinophyllia aspera Flat Lettuce Coral LC Not Listed LC
102 Scleractinia Echinophyllia echinoporoides Red Stone Coral LC Not Listed LC
103 Scleractinia Echinophyllia glabra Chalice Coral LC Not Listed VU
104 Scleractinia Echinopora gemmacea Hedgehog Coral LC Not Listed LC
105 Scleractinia Echinopora hirsutissima Prickly-pored Coral LC Not Listed DD
106 Scleractinia Echinopora horrida Hedgehog Coral NT Not Listed LC
107 Scleractinia Echinopora lamellosa Blue Chalice Coral LC Not Listed LC
108 Scleractinia Echinopora pacifica Hedgehog Coral NT Not Listed DD
109 Scleractinia Euphyllia glabrescens Torch Anchor Coral NT Not Listed DD
110 Scleractinia Favites abdita Large Star Coral NT Not Listed LC
111 Scleractinia Favites chinensis NT Not Listed LC
112 Scleractinia Favites colemani NT Not Listed DD
113 Scleractinia Favites complanata Large Star Coral NT Not Listed LC
114 Scleractinia Favites flexuosa NT Not Listed VU
115 Scleractinia Favites halicora NT Not Listed LC
116 Scleractinia Favites magnistellata NT Not Listed NT
117 Scleractinia Favites paraflexuosus NT Not Listed DD
118 Scleractinia Favites pentagona LC Not Listed LC
119 Scleractinia Favites rotundata NT Not Listed DD
120 Scleractinia Favites valenciennesi NT Not Listed LC
121 Scleractinia Fimbriaphyllia ancora Brain Anchor Coral VU Not Listed LC
122 Scleractinia Fimbriaphyllia divisa Frogspawn Coral NT Not Listed VU
123 Scleractinia Fimbriaphyllia paraancora Branching Anchor Coral VU Not Listed DD
124 Scleractinia Fimbriaphyllia paradivisa Frogspawn Coral VU Not Listed DD
125 Scleractinia Fungia fungites Common Mushroom NT Not Listed LC
126 Scleractinia Galaxea astreata Galaxy Coral VU Not Listed LC
127 Scleractinia Galaxea fascicularis Galaxy Coral NT Not Listed LC
128 Scleractinia Gardineroseris planulata Honeycomb Coral LC Not Listed DD
129 Scleractinia Goniastrea edwardsi LC Not Listed LC
130 Scleractinia Goniastrea favulus NT Not Listed LC
131 Scleractinia Goniastrea minuta NT Not Listed DD
132 Scleractinia Goniastrea pectinata LC Not Listed LC
133 Scleractinia Goniastrea retiformis LC Not Listed LC
134 Scleractinia Goniastrea stelligera NT Not Listed DD
135 Scleractinia Goniopora columna Anemone Coral NT Not Listed LC
136 Scleractinia Goniopora djiboutiensis Flowerpot Coral LC Not Listed NT
137 Scleractinia Goniopora eclipsensis LC Not Listed DD
138 Scleractinia Goniopora fruticosa LC Not Listed DD
139 Scleractinia Goniopora lobata Flowerpot True Red Coral NT Not Listed LC
140 Scleractinia Goniopora pandoraensis Branching Flowerpot Coral LC Not Listed LC
141 Scleractinia Goniopora pedunculata NT Not Listed DD
142 Scleractinia Goniopora pendulus LC Not Listed DD
143 Scleractinia Goniopora somaliensis LC Not Listed DD
144 Scleractinia Goniopora stokesi Daisy Coral NT Not Listed NT
145 Scleractinia Goniopora tenuidens Blue Purple Goniopora LC Not Listed DD
146 Scleractinia Heliofungia actiniformis Sunflower Mushroom Coral VU Not Listed NT
147 Scleractinia Herpolitha limax Tongue Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed LC
148 Scleractinia Homophyllia bowerbanki Brain Coral VU Not Listed DD
149 Scleractinia Hydnophora exesa NT Not Listed LC
150 Scleractinia Hydnophora grandis Spine Coral LC Not Listed NT
151 Scleractinia Hydnophora microconos NT Not Listed DD
152 Scleractinia Hydnophora rigida LC Not Listed NT
153 Scleractinia Isopora brueggemanni VU Not Listed DD
154 Scleractinia Isopora palifera Catch Bowl Coral NT Not Listed DD
155 Scleractinia Leptastrea purpurea LC Not Listed LC
156 Scleractinia Leptastrea transversa Crust Coral LC Not Listed LC
157 Scleractinia Leptoria phrygia NT Not Listed LC
158 Scleractinia Leptoseris explanata LC Not Listed VU
159 Scleractinia Leptoseris hawaiiensis Porcelain Coral LC Not Listed DD
160 Scleractinia Leptoseris scabra Rough Plate Coral LC Not Listed DD
161 Scleractinia Lithophyllon concinna LC Not Listed LC
162 Scleractinia Lithophyllon repanda LC Not Listed LC
163 Scleractinia Lithophyllon scabra LC Not Listed LC
164 Scleractinia Lithophyllon undulatum NT Not Listed LC
165 Scleractinia Lobactis scutaria LC Not Listed DD
166 Scleractinia Lobophyllia agaricia Grooved Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
167 Scleractinia Lobophyllia corymbosa Lobed Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
168 Scleractinia Lobophyllia flabelliformis VU Not Listed DD
169 Scleractinia Lobophyllia hataii Lobed Brain Coral LC Not Listed VU
170 Scleractinia Lobophyllia hemprichii Lobed Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
171 Scleractinia Lobophyllia radians Grooved Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
172 Scleractinia Lobophyllia recta Grooved Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
173 Scleractinia Lobophyllia valenciennesii Grooved Brain Coral LC Not Listed DD
174 Scleractinia Madracis kirbyi Ten Coral LC Not Listed DD
175 Scleractinia Merulina ampliata LC Not Listed LC
176 Scleractinia Merulina scabricula LC Not Listed LC
177 Scleractinia Micromussa amakusensis NT Not Listed DD
178 Scleractinia Montipora aequituberculata LC Not Listed DD
179 Scleractinia Montipora angulata VU Not Listed DD
180 Scleractinia Montipora capricornis VU Not Listed DD
181 Scleractinia Montipora corbettensis VU Not Listed NT
182 Scleractinia Montipora crassituberculata VU Not Listed DD
183 Scleractinia Montipora danae Poker Star Montipora LC Not Listed NT
184 Scleractinia Montipora digitata LC Not Listed VU
185 Scleractinia Montipora efflorescens NT Not Listed NT
186 Scleractinia Montipora foliosa Cabbage Coral NT Not Listed NT
187 Scleractinia Montipora grisea LC Not Listed VU
188 Scleractinia Montipora hispida LC Not Listed NT
189 Scleractinia Montipora hoffmeisteri LC Not Listed DD
190 Scleractinia Montipora informis LC Not Listed LC
191 Scleractinia Montipora millepora LC Not Listed DD
192 Scleractinia Montipora mollis LC Not Listed LC
193 Scleractinia Montipora monasteriata LC Not Listed LC
194 Scleractinia Montipora peltiformis NT Not Listed DD
195 Scleractinia Montipora spongodes LC Not Listed DD
196 Scleractinia Montipora spumosa LC Not Listed DD
197 Scleractinia Montipora stellata Velvet Branch Coral LC Not Listed LC
198 Scleractinia Montipora tuberculosa LC Not Listed NT
199 Scleractinia Montipora turgescens LC Not Listed DD
200 Scleractinia Montipora undata NT Not Listed VU
201 Scleractinia Montipora venosa NT Not Listed DD
202 Scleractinia Montipora verrucosa LC Not Listed LC
203 Scleractinia Mycedium elephantotus LC Not Listed LC
204 Scleractinia Oulastrea crispata Zebra Coral LC Not Listed LC
205 Scleractinia Oulophyllia bennettae Intermediate Valley Coral NT Not Listed DD
206 Scleractinia Oulophyllia crispa NT Not Listed LC
207 Scleractinia Oxypora crassispinosa Porous Lettuce Coral LC Not Listed DD
208 Scleractinia Oxypora echinata LC Not Listed LC
209 Scleractinia Oxypora lacera Ragged Chalice Coral LC Not Listed NT
210 Scleractinia Pachyseris rugosa Castle Coral VU Not Listed LC
211 Scleractinia Pachyseris speciosa Castle Coral LC Not Listed LC
212 Scleractinia Paragoniastrea australensis LC Not Listed LC
213 Scleractinia Paragoniastrea russelli NT Not Listed DD
214 Scleractinia Pavona cactus Cactus Coral VU Not Listed VU
215 Scleractinia Pavona clavus Shoulderblade Coral LC Not Listed DD
216 Scleractinia Pavona decussata Cactus Coral VU Not Listed NT
217 Scleractinia Pavona explanulata Peacock Coral LC Not Listed LC
218 Scleractinia Pavona frondifera Leaf Coral LC Not Listed LC
219 Scleractinia Pavona varians Fungus Coral LC Not Listed VU
220 Scleractinia Pectinia alcicornis Antler Coral VU Not Listed NT
221 Scleractinia Pectinia crassa DD Not Listed LC
222 Scleractinia Pectinia lactuca Carnation Coral VU Not Listed NT
223 Scleractinia Pectinia paeonia NT Not Listed LC
224 Scleractinia Physogyra lichtensteini Pearl Bubble Coral VU Not Listed VU
225 Scleractinia Physophyllia ayleni NT Not Listed DD
226 Scleractinia Platygyra daedalea Brain Coral LC Not Listed LC
227 Scleractinia Platygyra lamellina Lesser Valley Coral NT Not Listed VU
228 Scleractinia Platygyra pini LC Not Listed LC
229 Scleractinia Platygyra ryukyuensis Maze Brain Coral NT Not Listed DD
230 Scleractinia Platygyra sinensis LC Not Listed LC
231 Scleractinia Platygyra verweyi NT Not Listed NT
232 Scleractinia Plerogyra sinuosa Pearl Bubble Coral NT Not Listed VU
233 Scleractinia Plesiastrea versipora Pock-marked Coral LC Not Listed DD
234 Scleractinia Pleuractis granulosa LC Not Listed DD
235 Scleractinia Pleuractis moluccensis LC Not Listed NT
236 Scleractinia Pleuractis paumotensis Elongate Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed NT
237 Scleractinia Pocillopora acuta Cauliflower Coral Not Listed Not Listed LC
238 Scleractinia Pocillopora cf. verrucosa Cauliflower Coral LC Not Listed DD
239 Scleractinia Podabacia crustacea Bracket Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed LC
240 Scleractinia Podabacia kunzmanni Bracket Mushroom Coral DD Not Listed DD
241 Scleractinia Podabacia motuporensis Bracket Mushroom Coral NT Not Listed DD
242 Scleractinia Polyphyllia talpina Mole Mushroom Coral LC Not Listed VU
243 Scleractinia Porites australiensis LC Not Listed LC
244 Scleractinia Porites cylindrica Yellow Finger Coral NT Not Listed VU
245 Scleractinia Porites deformis NT Not Listed DD
246 Scleractinia Porites lichen Lichen Coral LC Not Listed DD
247 Scleractinia Porites lobata Lobe Coral NT Not Listed LC
248 Scleractinia Porites lutea LC Not Listed LC
249 Scleractinia Porites monticulosa LC Not Listed DD
250 Scleractinia Porites murrayensis NT Not Listed DD
251 Scleractinia Porites nigrescens VU Not Listed DD
252 Scleractinia Porites rus LC Not Listed NT
253 Scleractinia Porites solida LC Not Listed DD
254 Scleractinia Porites stephensoni NT Not Listed DD
255 Scleractinia Porites vaughani LC Not Listed DD
256 Scleractinia Psammocora contigua Crinkled Sandpaper Coral NT Not Listed NT
257 Scleractinia Psammocora haimiana Boulder Sandpaper Coral LC Not Listed LC
258 Scleractinia Psammocora nierstraszi Boulder Sandpaper Coral LC Not Listed VU
259 Scleractinia Psammocora profundacella Boulder Sandpaper Coral LC Not Listed DD
260 Scleractinia Pseudosiderastrea tayamai Neat Hexagonal Coral NT Not Listed LC
261 Scleractinia Scapophyllia cylindrica Columniform Crust Coral LC Not Listed VU
262 Scleractinia Seriatopora hystrix Thin Birdsnest Coral LC CR NEx
263 Scleractinia Stylocoeniella armata Thorn Coral LC Not Listed DD
264 Scleractinia Stylophora pistillata Smooth Cauliflower Coral NT CR CR
265 Scleractinia Trachyphyllia geoffroyi Green Open Brain Coral NT Not Listed EN
266 Scleractinia Tubastraea aurea Not Listed Not Listed DD
267 Scleractinia Tubastraea coccinea Orange Cup Coral Not Listed Not Listed DD
268 Scleractinia Tubastraea diaphana Black Cup Coral Not Listed Not Listed LC
269 Scleractinia Tubastraea micranthus Black Turret Coral Not Listed Not Listed LC
270 Scleractinia Turbinaria frondens Yellow Cup Coral LC Not Listed LC
271 Scleractinia Turbinaria irregularis LC Not Listed DD
272 Scleractinia Turbinaria mesenterina Vase Coral VU Not Listed LC
273 Scleractinia Turbinaria peltata Pagoda Coral VU Not Listed LC
274 Scleractinia Turbinaria radicalis NT Not Listed DD
275 Scleractinia Turbinaria reniformis Yellow Scroll Coral VU Not Listed NT
276 Scleractinia Turbinaria stellulata VU Not Listed DD

 

The list of the Categories used in 3rd edition of the Red List is:


Category

Abbreviation

Criteria

Not Threatened

Least Concern

LC

Not approaching the above criteria

Near-Threatened

NT

Approaching but not yet reaching the threshold for the above criteria

Threatened

Vulnerable

VU

There are fewer than 1,000 mature individuals but more than 250 and there may or may not be any other evidence of decline, small range size of fragmentation.

Endangered

EN

There are fewer than 250 mature individuals and no other evidence of decline or fragmentation.

Critically Endangered

CR

There are fewer than 50 mature individuals, OR if more than 50 mature individuals but less than 250, with some evidence of decline or fragmentation.

Extirpation

&

Extinction

Presumed Nationally Extinct

NEx

The species is extinct (extirpated) within Singapore but it still survives outside Singapore.

Globally Extinct

EX

The species is extinct all over the world, both in the wild and in cultivation







Other Categories

Data Deficient

DD

Inadequate information to make an informed assessment

Not Applicable

NA

Species that are not eligible for assessment at the national level (mainly introduced taxa and vagrants)

Not Evaluated


NE

Species that are possibly eligible for assessment but have not yet been evaluated against the criteria

Not Listed

NL

Species not listed in the records (in the IUCN Global Red List database, or the first edition Singapore Red Data Book - RDB 1 and second edition Singapore Red Data Book - RDB 2) for whatever reason

 

 

 

Last updated on 25 September 2021

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