Scientific Papers

CUGE Research publishes the following scientific papers, cited from newest to oldest.

Last Updated on 20th August 2018


Ng, K. S. T., Sia, A., Ng, M. K. W., Tan, T. Y C., Chan, H. Y., Tan, C. H., Rawtaer, I., Feng, L., Mahendran, R., Larbi, A., Kua, E. H., and Ho, R. C. M. (2018). Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Asian Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, 1705.

L. F. Ow and Mohamed Lokman, Mohd. Yusof (2018). Stability of four urban tree species in engineered and regular urban soil blends. Journal of Urban Ecology, 4 (1): pp 1-6.

Müller-Riemenschneider F., Petrunoff N., Sia A., Ramiah A., Ng, A., Han, A., Wong, M., Tai, B.C., Uijtdewilligen, L. (2018). Prescribing Physical Activity in Parks to Improve Health and Wellbeing: Protocol of the Park Prescription Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Environment and Public Health.

Ghosh, S., Pal, P., Ow, L. F., Burcham, D. C., & Rakshit, A. (2018). Effect of Compost and Hydroabsorbent Polymer on Tree Growth and Soil Properties in a Tropical Urban Environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis49(10), 1229-1238.

Sia, A., Ng, K. S. T., Ng, M. K. W., Chan, H. Y. Tan, C. H., Rawtaer, I., Feng, L., Mahendran, R., Kua, E. H., Ho, R. C. M. (2018). The Effect of Therapeutic Horticulture on the Psychological Wellbeing of Elderly in Singapore. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 28(1).


Neo, L., Yee, A. T., Chong, K. Y., Kee, C. Y., & Tan, H. T. (2017). Vascular plant species richness and composition in two types of postā€cultivation tropical secondary forest. Applied vegetation science20(4), 692-701.

Ow, L.F., & Ghosh, S. (2017). Growth of street trees in urban ecosystems: structural cells and structural soil. Journal of Urban Ecology, 3(1).

Ow, L.F., & Ghosh, S. (2017). Comparing the morphology and physiology of trees planted in containers and in-ground sites. Arboriculture Journal, 39(4), 198-207.

Yu, J.H., Ang, K.K., Ho, S.H., Sia, A., Ho, R. (Jul 2017). Prefrontal cortical activation while viewing urban and garden scenes: A pilot fNIRS study. Oral Presentation at 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Jeju Island. 

Kheng Siang Ted Ng, Angelia Sia, Maxel K.W. Ng, Crystal T.Y. Tan, Hui Yu Chan, Chay Hoon Tan, Iris Rawtaer, Lei Feng, Rathi Mahendran Anis Larbi, Ee Heok Kua, and Roger C.M. Ho. (Jul 2017). Effects of horticultural therapy on elderly’s health: protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Poster Session in the Alzheimer's Association International Conference, London.

Chan, H. Y., Ho, R. C. M, Mahendran, R., Ng, K. S., Tam, W. W., Rawtaer, I., Tan, C. H., Larbi, A., Feng, L., Sia, A., Ng, M. K. W., Gan, G. L., Kua, E. H. (2017). Effects of horticultural therapy on elderly's health: protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1). doi: 10.1186/s12877-017-0588-z

Ng, E. Y. X., Garg, K. M., Low, G. W., Chattopadhyay, B., Oh, R. R. Y., Lee, J. G. H., & Rheindt, F. E. (2017). Conservation genomics identifies impact of trade in a threatened songbird. Biological Conservation214, 101-108.

Oh, R. R. Y., Richards, D. R., & Yee A. T. K. (2018) Community-driven skyrise greenery in a dense tropical city provides biodiversity and ecosystem service benefits. Landscape and Urban Planning169, 115 - 123. 

Ghosh, S., & Yusof, M. L. (2017, May). Distribution, contamination and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical urban soils. Poster session presented at 9th International Congress Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA), Moscow. 

Ow, L.F., & Ghosh, S. (2017). Urban tree growth and their dependency on infiltration rates in structural soil and structural cells. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening26, 41-47. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2017.06.005.

Rahardjo, H., Amalia, N., Jian, D. W., Leong, E. C., Ow, L. F., Tan, P. Y. (2017). Effect of soil hydraulic properties on water infiltration of containerised soil. Landscape and Urban Planning165, 41-47.

Kua, E., Sia, A. (2017). Green Environment and Mental Health in the City. In Okkels, N., B. Kristiansen, C., M. Jorgensen, P. (Eds.), Mental Health and Illness in the City. Springer.

Vogt, C. A., Kho, C., & Sia, A. (2017). Urban Greening and Its Role in Fostering Human Well-Being. In Tan, P.Y. & Jim, C.Y. (Eds.), Greening Cities (pp. 95-111). Singapore: Springer.

Ow, L.F. & Ghosh, S. (2017). Performance of Three Warm Season Turfgrass under Linear Gradient Irrigation. Weed Turfgrass Science, 6 (1), 1-6.

Rakshit, A., Abhilash, P.C., Singh, H.B., Ghosh, S. (2017). Adaptive Soil Management: From Theory to Practices. S.I.: Springer.

Sharathkumar, M., Vivek, G., Jawaharlal, M., Ganga, M., Surakshitha, N. C. (2017). Influence of traffic stress on warm season turfgrass species under simulated traffic. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87 (1): 62-8.

Chin, S.W. (2017) Comparative performance of three tropical turfgrasses Digitaria longifloraAxonopus compressus and St. Augustinegrass under simulated shade conditions. Weed & Turfgrass Science 6 (1):1-6. doi: 

Chong, K. Y., Chong, R., Tan, L. W., Yee, A. T., Chua, M. A., Wong, K. M., & Tan, H. T. (2016). Seed production and survival of four dipterocarp species in degraded forests in Singapore. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 1-8.

Merriman, L. S., Moore, T. L. C., Wang, J. W., Osmond, D. L., Al-Rubaei, A. M., Smolek, A. P., ... & Hunt, W. F. (2017). Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones. Science of The Total Environment583, 133-141.

Oh, R. R. Y., Friess, D. A., & Brown, B. M. (2017). The role of surface elevation in the rehabilitation of abandoned aquaculture ponds to mangrove forests, Sulawesi, Indonesia.Ecological Engineering,100, 325-334.

Ow, L. F. & Ghosh, S. (2017). Urban cities and road traffic noise: Reduction through vegetation. Applied Acoustics 120 (2017) 15 - 20.


Kwek Yan Chong, Rie Chong, Lorraine W.A. Tan, Alex T.K. Yee, MarcusA.H. Chua, Khoon Meng Wong & Hugh T.W. Tan (2016): Seed production and survival of fourdipterocarp species in degraded forests in Singapore, Plant Ecology & Diversity. doi:

Chin, S.W. and Ow. L.-F. (2016) Performance of Zoysia spp. and Axonopus compressus turf on turf-paver complex under simulated traffic. Weed & Turfgrass Science 5(2): 88-94. doi:

Richards, D. R., Passy, P., & Oh, R. R. (2017). Impacts of population density and wealth on the quantity and structure of urban green space in tropical Southeast Asia.Landscape and Urban Planning,157, 553-560. doi:

Subhadip Ghosh, Bryant C. Scharenbroch and Lai Fern Ow (2016) Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore. Chemosphere 165:163-172. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.028.

Kua, E.H., Sia, A. (2016,  August 12). Green urbanism and mental health. The Straits Times. Retrieved from .

Rahardjo, H., Amalia, N., Leong, E.C., Harnas, F.R., Lee, T.T., & Fong, Y. K. (2016, August 08). Flux boundary measurements for the study of tree stability. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, DOI 10.1007/s11355-016-0303-9

Kheng Siang Ted Ng, Angelia Sia, Maxel K.W. Ng, Crystal T.Y. Tan, Hui Yu Chan, Chay Hoon Tan, Iris Rawtaer, Lei Feng, Rathi Mahendran Anis Larbi, Ee Heok Kua, and Roger C.M. Ho. (Jul 2016) The Effects of Horticultural Therapy on the Psychological Well-Being and Associated Biomarkers of Elderly in Singapore. Poster Session in the Alzheimer's Association International Conference, Toronto.

Falk, R.M., Uijtdewilligen L., Sia, A.. (2016, June) Park Prescription Study: using mixed-methods to develop a physical activity based intervention for a multi-ethnic Asian population. International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) Annual Conference, Cape Town.

Rahardjo, H., Gofar, N., Amalia, N., Leong, E. C., & Ow, L. F. (Jun 2016). Structural cell contribution to resistance of trees to uprooting. Trees - Structure & Function30(5), 1843-1853.

Sia, A., Ho, C.M., Ng, K.S., Rawtaer, I, Mahendran, R., Feng, L., Tan, C.H. , Larbi, A., Chan, H.Y., and Ng, K.W, and Kua, E.H. (2016, May). Horticultural Therapy for Mental Health of the Elderly - Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. Poster session presented at the Annual Scientific Conference of Ageing, Singapore.

Chan, H.Y., Rawtaer, I., Mahendran, R., Lee, G.G., Feng, L., Sia, A., Kho, C. and Kua, E.H. (2016, May). A Preliminary Report on Dementia Prevention Programme for Community-living Elderly. Poster session presented at the Annual Scientific Conference of Ageing, Singapore.

Ghosh, S., Scharenbroch, B.C., Burcham, D. C., Ow L.F., Shenbagavalli S. & Mahimairaja S. (2016). Influence of soil properties on street tree attributes in Singapore. Urban Ecosystems 19: 949. doi: 10.1007/s11252-016-0530-8.


Ow, L. F., Ghosh, S. & Chin, S. W. (2015). Performance assessment of three turfgrass species in three different soil types, and their responses to water deficit in reinforced cells growing in the urban environment. Weed & Turfgrass Science 4 (4): 338-374. doi: 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.338.

Burcham, D. C., Wong, J.-Y., Ali, M. I. M., Abarrientos, N. V., Fong, Y.-K. and Schwarze, F. W. M. R. (2015). Characterization of host-fungus interactions among wood decay fungi associated with Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. Forest Pathology 45(6): 492–504. doi: 10.1111/efp.12199.

Harnas, F.R., Rahardjo, H., Leong, E.C., Tan, P.Y. & Ow, L.F. (2016). Stability of containerized urban street trees. Landscape and Ecological Engineering 12: 13. doi: 10.1007/s11355-015-0272-4.


I.M. Turner, A.D. Weerasoriya, R.M.K. Saunders and Ganesan, S.K. Annonaceae. In Tree Flora Of Sabah And Sarawak.2014; 8: 1-215

L.F. Ow, S. Ghosh, E.K. Sim. Calculating the value of the tropical, urban tree Albizia saman. Arboricultural Journal: The International Journal of Urban Forestry. February 2014.

S. Ghosh, L.F. Ow & B. Wilson. Influence of biochar and compost on soil properties and tree growth in a tropical urban environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. January 2014.


Ganesan, S. K., 2013. Status and distribution of Pterospermum Species in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 6:149-152. July 2013.

H. Rahardjo, F.R. Harnas, I.G.B. Indrawan, E.C. Leong, P.Y. Tan, Y.K. Fong, L.F. Ow. Understanding the stability of Samanea saman trees through tree pulling, analytical calculations and numerical models. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. December 2013.

L.F. Ow, S. Ghosh, E.K. Sim. Mechanical injury and occlusion: An urban, tropical perspective. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2013; 12(2): 255-261.

Sampath Kasthurirengan, Lifen Xie, Chun Hong Li, Yok King Fong, Yang Hong. In vitro propagation and assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated Samanea saman (rain tree) using microsatellite markers. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, April 2013.

Puay Yok Tan, James Wang, Angelia Sia, Perspectives on five decades of the urban greening of Singapore, Cities, Volume 32, June 2013, Pages 24-32.

D.C. Burcham, E.C. Leong, Y.K. Fong, P.Y. Tan. Infrared Camera Measurements Reveal Diurnal Variation in the Effect of Mechanically Induced Internal Voids on Stem Temperatures of Small Trees Passively Heated by the Sun. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 2013. 39(1): 31–41.


D.C. Burcham, E.C. Leong, Y.K. Fong, P.Y. Tan. An Evaluation of Internal Defects and Their Effect on Trunk Surface Temperature in Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae). Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 2012; 38(6): 277-286.

L.F. Ow, E.K. Sim. Detection of urban tree roots with the ground penetrating radar. Plants Biosystems. 2012; 146: 288-297.

E.C. Leong, D.C. Burcham, Y.K. Fong,  A purposeful classification of tree decay detection tools. Arboricultural Journal: The International Journal of Urban Forestry. 2012; 34(2):91-115.

B. Michael, C.H. Poh. Safe design of skyrise greenery in Singapore. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment. 2012; 1(2): 186-205.

S. Ghosh, D. Yeo, B. Wilson, L. F. Ow. Application of char products improves urban soil quality. Soil Use and Management [n Press]. 2012; 28:329-336.

D. C. Burcham, E.C. Leong, Y.K. Fong, Passive infrared camera measurements demonstrate modest effect of mechanically induced internal voids on Dracaena fragrans stem temperature. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2012; 11(2): 169-178.

*Ghosh S, Wilson BR, Ghoshal S.K, Senapati N, Mandal B. Organic  amendments influence soil quality and carbon sequestration in the Indo-Gangeic plains of India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2012; 156: 437-447.


D. C. Burcham, S Ghosh, Y. K. Fong. Evaluating an infrared camera diagnostic technique for detecting mechanically induced internal voids in Syzygium grande. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 2011; 37(3): 93-98.

S. Ghosh, P. Lockwood, H. Daniel, N. Hulugalle, K. King, P. Kristiansen. Changes in Vertisol properties as affected by organic amendments application rates. Soil Use and Management. 2011; 27(2): 195–204.

L. F. Ow, T.Y. Yeo, E. K. Sim. Identification of drought-tolerant plants for roadside greening — An evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator to screen for drought tolerance. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2011; 10(3); 177-184.

R. Kjelgren, Y. Trisurat, L. Puangchit, N. Baguinon, P.Y. Tan. Tropical street trees and climate uncertainty in Southeast Asia. HortScience. 2011; 46(2)

*Wilson B.R, Koen T.B,Barnes P, Ghosh S, King D. Soil carbon and related soil properties along a soil type and land-use intensity gradient, New South Wales Australia. Soil use and management 2011; 27: 195-204.


N.H. Wong, Y.K. Tan, P.Y. Tan, A. Sia N.C. Wong. Perception studies of vertical greenery systems in Singapore. J. Urban Plng. and Devel. 2010; 136(4): 330-338.

L.F. Ow, F.R. Harnas, I. G. B. Indrawan, A. Sahadewa, E.K. Sim, H. Rahardjo, E.C. Leong, Y.K. Fong, P.Y. Tan. Tree-pulling experiment: an analysis into the mechanical stability of rain trees. Trees - Structure and Function. 2010; 24(6): 1007-1015.

N.H. Wong, Y.K. Tan, Y. Chen, K. Sekar, P.Y. Tan, D. Chan, K. Chiang, N.C. Wong, Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and Environment. 2010; 45(3): 663-672.

N.H. Wong, Y.K. Tan, P.Y. Tan, K. Chiang, N.C. Wong, Acoustics evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and Environment. 2010; 45(2): 411-420.

K.B. Marcum, M. Pessarakli. Salinity tolerance of ryegrass turf cultivars. HortScience (in press). 2010; 45(12): 1882-1884

C. Li, Y.K. Fong, Y. Hong. Isolation and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae). Molecular Ecology Resources. 2010; 10: 1098–1105.

C. Li, M.H. Sman, Y.K. Fong, Y. Hong. Isolation and characterization of 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pterocarpus indicus (Leguminosae). Molecular Ecology Resources. 2010; 10: 1098–1105.

Li, C, Y Fong and Y Hong et al. 2010. Isolation and characterization of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the rain tree, Samanea saman (Leguminosae). Molecular Ecology Resources. 2010; 10: 751-754


N.H. Wong, Y.K. Tan, P.Y. Tan, N.C. Wong, Energy simulation of vertical greenery systems. Energy and Buildings. 2009; 41(12): 1401-1408.

H. Rahardjo, F.R. Harnas, E.C. Leong, P.Y. Tan, Y.K. Fong, E.K. Sim, Tree stability in an improved soil to withstand wind loading, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2009; 8(4): 237-247.

P.Y. Tan, A. Sia. Understanding the performance of plants on non-irrigated green roofs in Singapore using a biomass yield approach. Nature in Singapore. 2009; 2: 149–153.


H. Rahardjo, I.G.B. Indrawan, E.C. Leong, W.K. Yong, Effects of coarse-grained material on hydraulic properties and shear strength of top soil. Engineering Geology. 2008; 101(3-4): 165-173.


N.H. Wong, P.Y. Tan, C. Yu. Study of thermal performance of extensive rooftop greenery systems in the tropical climate. Building and Environment. 2007; 42(1): 25-54.


N.H. Wong, S.J. Wong, G.T. Lim, C.L. Ong, A. Sia. Perception study of building professionals on the issues of green roof development in Singapore. Architectural Science Review. 2005; 48(3): 205-214.


N. H. Wong, D. K. W. Cheong, H. Yan, J. Soh, C. L. Ong, A. Sia, The effects of rooftop garden on energy consumption of a commercial building in Singapore, Energy and Buildings. 2003; 35(4): 353-364.

N.H. Wong, S.F. Tay, R. Wong, C.L. Ong, A. Sia, Life cycle cost analysis of rooftop gardens in Singapore, Building and Environment. 2003; 38(3): 499-509.

N.H. Wong, Yu Chen, C.L. Ong, A. Sia. Investigation of thermal benefits of rooftop garden in the tropical environment. Building and Environment. 2003; 38(2): 261-270.


N.H. Wong, V. L. Wong, Y. Chen, S. E. Lee, K. W. Cheong, G.T. Lim, C. L. Ong, A. Sia. The thermal effects of plants on buildings. Architectural Science Review. 2002; 45: 1-12.


*Denotes work undertaken by CUGE researcher in personal capacity, in collaboration with other organisations.