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Santiria laevigata


Santiria laevigata Blume

Family Name: Burseraceae
Common Name: Kedondong Kerantai Lichin, Kedondong Gergaji Daun Licin, Kedondong, Smooth-leafed Santiria

Santiria laevigata or Kedondong Gergaji Daun Licin is a tree native to Singapore. Growing to 30 m tall, it has an aromatic bark described to have mango-like or turpentine smell. Clear to creamy white sticky resins exudates from the trunk. Leaves are odd-pinnate, leathery between 5 - 11 leaflets. Terminal buds are covered in resin, drying black and shiny. Flowers are dioecious, small up to 2 mm long, 3-petalled, green to white. The fruit is an irregular globose to elliptic drupe, flattened on one side. Upon maturity, it turns yellow to red and finally black.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m), Big (>30m))
Maximum Height 30 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, central Sulawesi and the Philippines (Mindanao), Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Freshwater Swamp Forest, Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a medium to large sized tree that grows to 30 m tall. Buttresses often present. The bark is described to be strongly aromatic, resembling mango-like or turpentine smell. Clear to creamy white sticky resins exudates from the trunk.
Foliage Leaves are odd-pinnate with 1 leaflet at the end. Each leaf has 5 - 11 leathery, elliptic to oblong leaflets, 5-35.5 cm long, 3-10 cm wide. Lateral veins are nearly right angled to the midrib when matured. Young leaflets often have curving or arching to looping lateral veins. The stalks are swollen on both ends, dries blackish. Similarly, its terminal buds are covered in resin, often drying black and shiny.
Flowers Flowers are dioecious where the female and male flowers are produced on separate individuals. Flower borne on an inflorescence, mostly found along the axils, covered in hairs when young. They are 3-petalled, green to white with 6 stamens measuring up to 2 mm long.
Fruit The fruit is an irregular globose to elliptic drupe that is flattened on one side, measuring 10 - 20 mm long by 7 - 20 mm wide. Upon maturity, the fruit turns from yellow to red and finally black.
Habitat Occurs in forest, both dry and swampy areas including lowland peat swamp forests up to 1200 - 1500 m altitude. <1&2>
Cultivation Santiria laevigata thrive under full sun conditions, intolerant to waterlogged conditions. It can be propagated by seed.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Fragrant (Bark)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Moist Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Compound (Odd-Pinnate)
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Recticulate
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate, Acute
Foliar Base Cuneate, Rounded / Obtuse

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) White, Green
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Black
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe


References <1> Lemmens, R.H.M.J. et al. (1995). PROSEA Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers, vol. 5(2). Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. pp. 421.

<2> Seah, W.W. et al. (2019). Towards a field guide to the trees of the Nee Soon Swamp Forest (V): Burseraceae, Nature in Singapore 12: 30.

Image Repository



Master ID 30361
Species ID 4670
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 13 May 2024.