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Endocomia canarioides


Endocomia canarioides (King) Wilde

Family Name: Myristicaceae
Synonyms: Embelia ridleyi King & Gamble, Horsfieldia macrocoma (Miq.) Warb. var. canarioides (King) J.Sinclair, Horsfieldia racemosa (King) Warb., Horsfieldia canarioides (King) Warb.

Endocomia canarioides is a tree growing from 10 - 35 m tall, native to Singapore. It has thin to papery leaves, unisexual pale green flowers and woody fruit that split upon maturity. As the only monoecious genera in the Nutmeg family, male and female flowers are produced on the same tree. Flowers are borne on an inflorescence, sparsely covered with fine grey hairs. The fruit is elliptic to elongated, yellow to purple-brown capsule and when matured, it splits to reveal a single seed covered in a red aril.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m), Medium (16m-30m), Small (6m-15m))
Maximum Height 35 m


Native Distribution Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree 10–35 m tall, exudes red sap when cut into the bark.
Foliage Leaves are membranous to papery, elliptic to oblong with a pointed tip, dark brown when dried, 8–30 cm by 4–13.5 cm, and have 11–19 pairs of lateral veins.
Flowers The species is monoecious, producing male and female flowers on the same plant. The flowers are pale green flowers, sparsely covered with grey hairs up to 0.1 mm long and arranged in 6–25 cm by 3–15 cm clusters of mostly male flowers and few female flowers.
Fruit Fruit is a ellipsoid-oblong, yellow or purple brown capsule. Produced on 15 - 20 cm cluster of up to 6 fruits, each fruit is 4.5-7 cm long, 2.5–3.5 cm wide, splits to reveal the single-seed covered in a red aril. The seed is ellipsoid-oblong, 4–5 cm long, with a purplish brownish variegated seed coat.
Habitat It grows in evergreen bamboo forests, lowland rainforests, on flat land or hill sides up to 300 m altitude. <1>
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate to Slow
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Recticulate
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate, Acute
Foliar Base Cuneate, Rounded / Obtuse

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
Flower Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Brown, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Dehiscent Dry Fruit , Capsule
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Few (1-5)


References <1> de Wilde, W.J.J.O (2000). Endocomia. In: de Wilde, W.J.J.O (eds). Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, Seed Plants, vol. 14, pp. 30 - 31. Leiden: Rijksherbarium.

Image Repository



Master ID 32906
Species ID 7320
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 28 September 2023.