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Galearia maingayi


Galearia maingayi Hook.f.

Family Name: Pandaceae
Common Name: Minyak Beruk, Dadali, Merbatu, Peropok

Galearia maingayi or Minyak Beruk is a medium to large sized tree that is native to Singapore. Reaching up to 35 m tall, it produces leathery leaves with dense hairs covering the midrib and veinlets. Flowers are dioecious, very small, cup-shaped with hairy, hook-like petals held on an inflorescence. The male inflorescence is longer with each flower attached to thin stalk whereas female inflorescence are shorter, each flower attached to a thicker stalk. Fruit is a smooth, thick-walled flattened drupe that ripens from pale green to yellow-brown.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m), Big (>30m))
Maximum Height 35 m


Native Distribution Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines
Native Habitat
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a medium to large sized tree with a light brown to brown-greenish or grey bark and can reach up to 35 m tall. Buttresses may be present up to 3 m tall.
Foliage Leaves are leathery, egg-shaped to elliptic, oblong to lance-shaped, measuring 5.2 - 20.5 cm long, 2.1 - 6.7 cm wide held on a short angular petiole. The veinlets are looped, closed towards the margin, raised beneath. Densely hairs found along the midrib and veinlets on both surfaces.
Flowers Flowers are dioecious, where the female and male flowers are borne on separate individuals. They are borne on an inflorescence produced on the tips of the branches. The male inflorescence measures between 13 - 21 cm in length, longer than the female inflorescence, 3- 8 cm long. Male Each flower is very small, 5-petalled, cup-shaped with hairy, hook-like petals bending inwards. The male flowers are greenish white to yellowish while the female flowers are pastel pink to brown held on a thicker flower stalk compared to a male flower.
Fruit Fruit is a smooth, thick-walled flattened drupe with 3 - 5 ridges measuring to 4.5 cm long and 4 cm wide. The fruit turns from pale green to green and yellow-brown upon ripening held on a thick stalk of 4 - 5 mm wide.
Habitat Occurs in primary forest, open secondary forest, dipterocarp forest, disturbed areas, swamps, commonly on ridges, upper valleys and hillsides, stream banks and roadsides up to 1200 m in altitude. <1, 2>
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Slow
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Ovate, Oblong, Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Recticulate
Foliar Margin Entire, Entire - Wavy / Undulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Acute, Attenuate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Green, White
Flower Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe


References <1> Syahida-Emiza, S. (2013). Pandaceae. Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, ser. 2, Seed Plants, vol. 4, pp. 345 - 348. Selangor: Forest Research Institute Malaysia.

<2> Welzen, P.C. Van (2011). Galearia. In: Welzen, P.C. van, (ed.) Pandaceae. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, Seed Plants, vol. 20, pp. 37. Leiden: Rijksherbarium.

Image Repository



Master ID 34315
Species ID 8728
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 15 May 2023.