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Adenia macrophylla var. singaporiana

Family Name: Passifloraceae
Synonyms: Passiflora singaporiana, Anthactinia
Common Name: Large-leafed Adenia, Singapore Adenia, Singapore Passion Flower, 大叶蒴莲
Full Sun Semi-Shade Moderate Water Caterpillar Food Plant Native to Singapore Climber, Vine and Liana

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Family Name
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Infraspecific Epithet
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Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Climber, Vine & Liana
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 25 m

Biogeography

Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia (Johor), Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status 1 Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Slender woody vine, climbing with tendrils borne from flower-bearing branches, reaching up to 25m height with support. Typically spreading widely amongst tree crowns, but main plant usually difficult to spot, unless when flowering.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have thickly leathery blades that are usually oblong to lance-shaped, and 5–15 by 1.8–8 cm, with two spoon-shaped glands at either side of the base.
Flowers The plant is monoecious, producing only male or only female flowers on the branches. The former is produced in much larger proportion. Flowers of both sexes are yellow, tubular, less than 1 cm wide, and arranged in hanging clusters.
Fruits Its shiny red fruit is capsule-shaped, about 5 cm long, and splits along three lines from the apex to reveal 15–40 seeds each. Its seeds are blackish when mature, flat and round. Each seed is also surrounded in white fleshy pulp, and suspended by pink threads.
Habitat It grows on trees in forests and along forest edges. It occurs locally in Central Catchment areas, Nee Soon Swamp Forest, and Chestnut Area.
Associated Fauna Locally preferred host / food plant for Cethosia hypsea hypsina (Malay Lacewing Butterfly), which lays its eggs on undersides of leaves, and on stems or tendrils.
Cultivation Fast growing. Best propagated by seeds (which germinate easily) or by cuttings. Cut surfaces should be handled with caution, as Adenia genus (especially caudiciform types) is known to contain toxic sap, which is poisonous if ingested by vetebrates, and may cause skin irritation in sensitive individuals.
Etymology Genus epithet 'Adenia' derived from Aden, a small seaport near the Red Sea, from which the type species originated. Species epithet 'macrophylla' means 'big leaf', a reference to the plant's relatively large leaves.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for planting on trellis in parks and gardens for its attractive red fruits.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Seeds
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Vertical Greenery / Green Wall, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Trellis / Arbour / Pergola
Thematic Landscaping Butterfly Garden, Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment
Usage Hazard - Cons Irritant - Sap, Toxic Upon Ingestion
Usage Hazard - Cons Remarks Plant sap contains cyanogenic compounds & lectins, toxic to vetebrates when ingested, & may cause skin irritation when handled.
Species record last updated on: 18 September 2019.
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