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Pyrrosia longifolia


Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm.f.) C.V. Morton

Family Name: Polypodiaceae
Synonyms: Polypodium acrostichoides Forst
Common Name: Suloi, 南洋石韦

Pyrrosia longifolia or Suloi is an epiphytic fern native to Singapore. It has stiff strap-shaped fronds, rigid rhizomes and round sori found near the tips of the fronds on the underside. Scales on the rhizomes are appressed, shiny, dark coloured with a smooth margin.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Ferns & Allies (Non-Seed Vascular Plants) (Fern)
Plant Growth Form Epiphyte, Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 1 m


Native Distribution South China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines 
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest, Coastal Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Disturbed Area / Open Ground)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a epiphytic fern with long creeping, slender rhizomes and elongated fronds.
Foliage The fronds are monomorphic, thick, stiff, strap-shaped, gradually narrowing on both ends, 10 - 110 cm long and up to 0.7 - 4.5 cm wide.
Reproductive Parts - non-flowering plant The sori are round, found near the tips of the fronds on the underside.
Others - Plant Morphology The rhizomes are long-creeping, about 1.8- 2.7 mm wide, covered in scales. Scales are appressed, round, shiny brown to blackish coloured with a smooth margin measuring 1 - 3.4 mm long and 0.6 - 1.5 mm wide.
Habitat Occurs in various types of forest commonly as an epiphyte, in disturbed or open situations and in the littoral zone of mangroves, from sea level to 1000m in altitude.
Similar Pyrrosia longifolia is similar to Pyrrosia lanceolata. The key differences are Pyrrosia longifolia have rigid rhizomes, smooth margins and monomorhpic, stiff fronds while the latter have flexibile rhizomes, scales with hairs on the margins and dimorphic fronds.
Cultivation It can be propagated by spores.
Etymology Greek pyrros, flame-coloured; Latin longifolia, long leaves, referring to the long fronds of the plant

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Shallow Media (8 -10cm)
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade, Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water, Little Water, Occasional Misting
Plant Growth Rate Fast to Moderate
Propagation Method Spore


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Linear)
Foliar Margin Entire



Hovenkamp, P.H. (1998). Pyrrosia. In: Hovenkamp, P.H. (ed.) Flora Malesiana, ser. 2, Pteridophytes, vol. 3, pp. 163 - 164. Leiden: Rijksherbarium.

Tagawa, M. & Iwatsuki, K. (1985). Flora of Thailand. vol. 3(4), pp. 486-500. Bangkok: The Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation.

Image Repository



Master ID 274
Species ID 1570
Species record last updated on: 15 March 2023.