Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Paracarphalea kirondron (Baill.) Razafim. et al.

Family Name: Rubiaceae
Synonyms: Carphalea kirondron
Common Name: Flaming Beauty, 繁星花
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Ornamental Flowers Woody


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub (Woody)
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby
Maximum Height 1.5 m to 3 m


Native Distribution Madagascar
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Tropical shrub, up to 3 m or more in height if not restrained. 
Foliage Leaves mostly opposite, sometimes whorled, 10 cm by 5 cm, green with protruding veins. Interpetiolar stipules present.
Stems Woody stems, leaf petioles 2 cm long, red hue. 
Flowers Blooms in large bunches, 10 - 20 cm across, bright red calyx enlarged and unequal (1 lobe is more enlarged than the others). Inflorescence terminal, in a corymb-like thyrse. Flowers bisexual, tubular, white and 4 - petaled, inconspicuous from far. Heterostylous, flowers have either long or short styles. Flowers' lifespan up to months.
Fruits Fruits are indehiscent and nut-like. 
Similar Often mistaken as Ixora species as bright red calyx look similar to flowers of Ixora species. Ixora leaves are oppositely arranged along the stems, and the flower lobes are equal, with anthers dorsifixed near the base. 
Cultivation Prune often to promote bushiness and flowering. Plants flowers best under full sun. Ensure plant in a well-drained soil, rich in organic matter.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping Grown for its showy ornamental flowers, planted as hedge along roadside. Fast growing and low maintenance, blooms well under full sun. 
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses Container Planting, General, Flowerbed / Border, Hedge / Screening
Thematic Landscaping Butterfly Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Weak Branches

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Maintenance Requirements Low
Potential Problems No serious pest or disease problems.
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting
Propagation Method Remarks Propagation by seeds are more difficult compared to stem cuttings. For stem cuttings, cut a few stems of 5-6 inches in length, trim away excess leaves, leaving a couple for plant to make food. Plant stem in one and half inches deep hole, cover with soil and place plant in shaded area, water regularly.


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite, Whorled
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Red, White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Bilateral
Individual Flower Shape Tubular
Inflorescence Type Thryse
Ovary Position Inferior / Epipgynous
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed & Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 490
Species ID 1786
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 24 September 2020.