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Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce

Family Name: Crassulaceae
Synonyms: Crassula argentea, Crassula portulacea, Cotyledon ovata
Common Name: Jade Plant, Dollar Plant, Friendship Tree, Lucky Plant
Full Sun Semi Shade Little Water Suitable for Bonsai Suitable for Rooftops Indoor Plant Ornamental Leaves Drought Tolerant Shallow Media Succulent


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Succulent Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Compact, Rounded
Maximum Height 1 m to 3.3 m


Native Distribution South Africa, Mozambique
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Inland Cliff)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Rounded, evergreen shrub with a highly branched, bushy growth form.
Foliage Thick, densely clustered leaves are elliptical to ovate (3-9 cm long, 1.8-4 cm wide). They are dark grey-green and often have a reddish, smooth margin. Leaves are directly attached to the stem with minimal petiole.
Stems Thick, fleshy stem is gray and smooth.
Flowers Light pink, star-shaped flowers are arranged in dense, round clusters. Flowers emit a sweet fragrance.
Fruits Fruits are small capsules that contain many, tiny seeds.
Habitat Located in rocky outcrops.
Cultivation In Singapore, this species requires air conditioning to survive. Although it grows well in full sun or semi-shade, it flowers best under full sun. It requires well-drained loamy soil.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Shallow Media (8 -10cm)
Landscape Uses Container Planting, Bonsai, Green Roof, Interiorscape/ Indoor Plant, General, Skyrise / Balcony
Thematic Landscaping Rockery / Desert Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade, Full Sun
Water Preference Little Water
Planting Remarks In Singapore, this species needs air conditioning to survive.
Fertilizing Feed with a low nitrogen fertilizer, such as those used for tomatoes or vegetables.
Propagation Method Stem Cutting, Leaf Cutting, Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Sessile
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Recticulate
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Herbaceous
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)
Specialised Storage Organ(s) Aboveground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Pink, White
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 874
Species ID 2169
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 30 April 2022.