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Rubus moluccanus var. angulosus Kalkman

Family Name: Rosaceae
Common Name: Tempu Rengat, Broad-Leaf Bramble, Malayan bramble, Akar kupur, Duri berumbet
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Native to Singapore Coastal Ornamental Foliage Climber, Vine and Liana Woody


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub (Woody), Climber, Vine & Liana
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular


Native Distribution Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra and adjacent islands, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, and the Lesser Sunda Islands
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Disturbed Area / Open Ground)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a prickly shrub, or climber with stem up to 10 m long.
Foliage Its alternate, long-stalked leaves have finely toothed leaf blades that are egg-shaped to broadly egg-shaped, 3–7 lobed, and 6–20 by 4–18 cm, with thin, curly hairs on their undersides.
Stems Stems are covered with prickles.
Flowers Its branched, flowering shoots are up to 50 cm long, and consist of up to 30 white flowers that usually crowded at the end.
Fruits Its fleshy fruits are rounded, red when ripe, and 2–3 by 1–2 mm when dry.
Habitat It grows along forest edges, in secondary forests and thickets, near the beach, and on riverbanks, up to 1,000 m altitude. It occurs locally in Nee Soon Swamp Forest, and Temenggong Road.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. It is the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the moth, Phyllonorycter penangensi. Its red fruits are eaten and dispersed by birds and terrestrial mammals too.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed, or stem cuttings.
Etymology Latin Rubus means blackberry, bramble, and raspberry; Latin moluccanus, of the Moluccas, from which the type species originated; Latin angulosus, many angled, referring to the many lobes of the leaf blades.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Medicinal ( The roots are boiled and taken as medicine for dysentery.)
[Others]: This species has horticultural potential as an ornamental climber for its distinctive leaves, and attractive, orange-red fruits.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping This climber may be suitable for gardens or parks as a barrier plant because of the numerous prickles on the stem. Its leaves and orange-red fruits are attractive and distinctive. It is also hardy and can grow over a wide range of habitats from coastal to inland sites, from wet to dry soil conditions.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Coastal

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Palmate, Cordate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Denticulate
Foliar Base Cordate
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) White

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red


References Ang, W. F., A. F. S. L. Lok, K. Y. Chong, B. Y. Q. Ng, S. M. Suen & H. T. W. Tan. 2010. The distribution and status in Singapore of Rubus moluccanus L. var. angulosus Kalkman (Rosaceae). Nature in Singapore. 3. 91-97

Image Repository



Master ID 1103
Species ID 2396
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 30 November 2021.