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Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook

Family Name: Arecaceae (Palmae)
Synonyms: Euterpe ventricosa, Roystonea ventricosa, Acanthophoenix elata, Roystonea elata, Roystonea floridana, Oreodoxa regia
Common Name: Florida Royal Palm, Royal Palm, Cuban Royal Palm, 王宗, 大王椰子, 高王椰子
Full Sun Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Plant Herb or Spice Coastal Plant Suitable for Roadsides Ornamental Leaves Drought Tolerant Solitary Habit Palm


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Palm (Solitary Palm)
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Fountain (Palm-like)
Maximum Height 15 m to 25 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 5 m


Native Distribution South Florida, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Tall attractive palm. Trunk single, massive, bulging slightly towards the middle, concrete-grey with closely-spaced rings. Crownshaft glossy green, smooth and up to 2m in length, topped by crown of leaf fronds. Fronds simple, pinnately-compound (feather-like), up tp 3m long, plumose and rather tangled appearance. Dead leaves are self-pruning and fall off plant as single whole fronds.Flowers cream-coloured, small, unisexual, separate male and female flowers on same plant, clustered in threes with female flower in between 2 much larger male flowers. Borne on large, much-branched panicles (up to 1m across) below crownshaft, emerging from horn-shaped bracts. Fruits round to oval, mature from green to brownish-red or dark purple, single-seeded.Fast-growing ornamental palm, looks especially impressive when formally massed along avenues and boulevards. Drought and fairly salt-tolerant. Propagate by seeds. Prone to being attacked by rhinocerous beetles, which damage growing point (resulting in palm death), or damaged leaflets. Spray crown regularly with insecticide to deter beetles.Middle trrunk bulge differentiates it from similar-looking relative Roystonea oleracea (Cabbage Palm), which has swollen bulge at base of trunk instead. Genus name 'Roystonea' named in honour of General Roy Stone (1836-1905), an American army engineer who worked in Puerto Rico. Species epithet 'regia' means 'royal', a reference to palm's majestic and stately appearance.
Ethnobotanical Uses Food (Herb and Spice)
[Others]: Fruits used as feed for livestock. Palm heart ('cabbage') edible. Trunks and leaves used in construction of simple houses. Wood used to make handicrafts.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Dry Soils / Drought
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee), Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Diseases Prone to being attacked by rhinocerous beetles, which damage growing point (resulting in palm death), or damaged leaflets. Spray crown regularly with insecticide to deter beetles.
Propagation Method Seed
Maintenance Requirements Remarks Drought-tolerant but prefers moist to wet conditons for optimal growth.


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
Foliar Type Compound (Even-Pinnate)
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Linear), Palm Fronds (Pinnate / Feather)
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Pinnately Lobed / Pinnatifid
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Truncate / Square
Typical Foliar Area Megaphyll (>1640.25cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 2.5 (Palm - Solitary)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Non Woody
Trunk Type (Palm) Solitary Habit, Aboveground
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Monoecious
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Yellow / Golden
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown, Purple, Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Berry

Image Repository



Master ID 1389
Species ID 2682
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 10 December 2021.

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