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Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) P.S. Ashton

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Synonyms: Balanocarpus heimii
Common Name: Cengal, Chengal, Chengai, Penak, Changi
Full Sun Semi Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 18 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Presumed Nationally Extinct (NEx))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 18 m tall.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are oblong-lance-shaped, 717 by 2.35 cm, and brown or yellowish brown below and brown or greenish above when dry.
Flowers Each flowering shoot is up to 9 cm long and bears up to 7 yellow flowers.
Fruits Its wingless fruits are dark yellow and 45.5 by 22.5 cm.
Habitat It grows in forests on well-drained soil up to 1,000 m altitude.
Associated Fauna It has insect-pollinated flowers.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek Neobalanocarpus, new acorn fruit; Latin heimii, commemorating F. Heim, a French researcher on Dipterocarpaceae
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( It is a source of good quality timber (chengal) and resin.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green, Purple
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Brown, Purple
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1747
Species ID 3040
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 10 August 2022.