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Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer ex K.Heyne

Family Name: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Synonyms: Peltophorum ferrugineum
Common Name: Yellow Flame, Jemerlang Laut, Yellow Flamboyant, Jamerelang, Balai, Batai, Batai Laut, Yellow Poinciana, Copper Pod, Rusty Shield Bearer, Rusty-shield Tree, 盾柱木, 黄盾柱木, 双翼豆, 翼果盾柱木
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Native to Singapore Coastal Roadside Tree / Palm Fragrant Ornamental Flowers Tree

Name

Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Synonyms
Common Names
Comments

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Umbrella
Maximum Height 35 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 9 m to 12 m
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 1 m

Biogeography

Native Distribution From Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malesia to northern Australia.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Coastal Forest), Shoreline (Mangrove Forest, Sandy Beach)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A deciduous tree with a girth of up to 1 m and grows to 35 m tall. It is fast growing.
Crown Tree form, umbrella-shaped with an open crown density. 
Foliage Leaves are bipinnate, 30-60cm long, with 16-20 pinnae. Each pinna has 20-40 oval leaflets, each 0.8-2.5cm long and 0.4-1.0cm long. Flowers are a bright yellow and grow in clusters on upright stalks.
Flowers Flowers have orange stamens and, each flower has crinkled petals with a reddish brown mark in the centre. It would be fragrant particularly at night. These flower clusters would then develop into seedpods of about 5-10cm long and 2.5cm broad. Trees will flower after 4 years. Flowers may occur throughout the year for younger trees, however, flowering usually occurs from March-May and a second flush of flowers may occur in September-November.
Fruits Seedpods are flat, thin and winged. In the initial stages seedpods are red, and then gradually turning black.
Others - Plant Morphology It prefers light to medium well-drained alkaline soils although it can also tolerate clay soils. 
Associated Fauna Its flowers are pollinated by insects.
Cultivation Peltophorum pterocarpum is propagated by seeds, grafting or branch cuttings.Before the transplantation of seedlings to the field, it is best to be raised in the nursery for one year. Grafts and cuttings can be carried out to obtain a better uniformity for roadside trees.
Etymology Greek peltophorum, bearing a shield, referring to the peltate stigma; Latin pterocarpum, winged-fruited, referring to the species’ fruits
Ethnobotanical Uses [Others]: Peltophorum pterocarpum provides wonderful shade and thus makes a great specimen for large landscapes and wide-open spaces such as large lawns or parks. It is also very suitable to be a street tree, however regular pruning is required. The elegant yellow flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum makes it an ornamental tree. Peltophorum pterocarpum is used for fodder.  The bark can also be used as dyes as it contains tannins, giving a light yellow colour to leather. Tannin is also present in leaves and wood. In Java, the dye is used for batik work.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It suitable for planting along streets, in parks and gardens for its ornamental flowers, and umbrella shaped crown which provides excellent shade.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers) (Night, Day), Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Heavy Clay Soils, Alkaline high pH Soils
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal, Shade Providing Tree / Palm, General, Parks & Gardens, Beachfront / Shoreline
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden, Golden Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Water)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Grafting

Foliar

Foliage Retention Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Compound (Bipinnate)
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Purple, Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Legume / Pod

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Others

Master ID 1763
Species ID 3056
Species record last updated on: 04 August 2021.
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