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Sterculia parviflora Roxb.

Family Name: Malvaceae
Synonyms: Sterculia maingayi, Sterculia holttumii
Common Name: Common Sterculia, Kelumpang Burong, Kelumpang Gajah, Samrong
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Native to Singapore Roadside Tree / Palm Ornamental Flowers Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded
Maximum Height 24 m to 30 m


Native Distribution Northeast India to Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a deciduous tree, up to 35 m tall.
Trunk Its trunk is typically clear and straight, sometimes slightly buttressed. Bark greyish, flaking in coarse uneven bits.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have leaf blades that are ovate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 8-20 cm by 4-10 cm.
Flowers Its hairy flowers are pinkish in colour, borne on branched inflorescenes that are up to 20 cm long.
Fruits Its velvety fruits are oblong follicles , 6-9 cm by 2-3 cm, ripening red in colour.
Habitat It grows in tropical lowland primary and secondary jungles, as well as hill forests.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation Hardy tree tolerant of urban conditions. Planted trees produce fruits in 4-5 years. Propagate by seeds -- to aid germination, remove the black seedcoat and surrounding white pulp before sowing. Established saplings transplant well -- specimens with 10cm trunk diameter can be transplanted without need for crown pruning.
Etymology Genus epithet 'Sterculia' named after Sterquilinus (or Sterculius), the early mythological Roman god of manuring and fertilization (where 'stercus' means 'dung' in Latin) -- alluding to how some species from this genus produce a foetid scent. Species epithet 'parviflora' means 'small-flowered' in Latin, a reference to the plant's blooms.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for gardens, parks, and streetscapes for its attractive flowers, fruits and form.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Seeds, Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Moist Soils
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Seeds)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp), Associated with: Flies, Beetles)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic, Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed
Propagule Establishment Remarks Before sowing, remove black seed coat & white pulp around seed to facilitate germination.


Foliage Retention Drought / Semi-Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Raised / Sunken Veins, Thick, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oblong, Ovate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Acuminate
Foliar Base Cordate
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 40 Tree Dense Canopy

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Greyish to pinkish
Mature Bark Texture Peeling / Flaking / Papery
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)
Mature Bark Texture Remarks Coarsely flaky

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual & Bisexual Flowers(Sub-dioecious)
Flower Colour(s) Pink, Yellow / Golden
Flower Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Size - Remarks 0.85cm long & wide
Inflorescence Type Raceme
Flowering Period Once Yearly
Flowering Habit Polycarpic
Inflorescence Size Remarks Flower base matures from pale yellow-pink to completely reddish-pink.

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Follicle

Image Repository



Master ID 1848
Species ID 3141
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 30 July 2021.