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Aegle marmelos

Family Name: Rutaceae
Common Name: Bel, Maja, Matum, Bilak, Bengal quince, Bael fruit
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Caterpillar Food Plant Fruit & Vegetable Coastal Fragrant Dry Soils / Drought Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial


Native Distribution India
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Monsoon Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Moderate sized tree up to 15 m tall.
Trunk Trunk is thick, and covered with soft, flaking bark. Branches are sometimes spiny and young suckers have many stiff, straight spines.
Foliage Leaves grow alternately, composed of 3, sometimes 5 oval-shaped leaflets, 4-10 cm long and 2-5 cm wide. The terminal leaflet has a long petiole.
Flowers Flowers are greenish white in color and sweetly scented.
Fruits Fruits are about 5-20 cm in diameter, ovoid or globular. The fruit has a woody peel which turns to pale yellow when ripe. Seeds are embedded in the pale orange, aromatic pulp.
Associated Fauna This plant is a host plant for the Lime Butterfly (Papilio demoleus) and the Common Mormon (Papilio polytes).
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Fruits are eaten fresh or made into jam and drinks. The young leaves can be eaten as salad.)
Medicinal ( The sliced, sun-dried fruit are used to improve appetite, and to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The pulp is also used to treat respiration disorders.)
[Others]: Flowers are distilled to make perfumes. Fruit pulp is used as detergent. The wood is hard but not durable, used to make handles of small tools.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Fragrant (Flowers)
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Well-Drained Soils, Alkaline high pH Soils
Landscape Uses General, Coastal
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Stem/Branch

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Green - Light Green

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Yellow / Golden

Image Repository



Master ID 2000
Species ID 3292
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 29 November 2021.