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Dibridsonia conferta


Dibridsonia conferta (Korth.) K.M.Wong

Family Name: Rubiaceae
Synonyms: Canthium confertum Korth.
Common Name: Green Coffee, Kahwa Utan, Kemuning Jantan Hutan, Kopi Utan, Mata Keli Jantan

Dibridsonia conferta or Green Coffee is a medium-sized tree native to Singapore. Growing to 18 m tall, the leaves are slightly leathery and elliptic, held on a short petiole. Flowers are green, tubular held on an inflorescence. The lobes are curved backwards while the throat of the flower is covered in dense, pale, erect hairs. The fruit is an orange, tear-shaped drupe, consist of 1 tear-shaped pyrene covered in bumps.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 18 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Coastal Forest, Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a medium sized tree that can grow to 18 m tall.
Foliage Leaves are slightly leathery, elliptic, measuring 3.5 - 12 cm long by 1.5 - 5.5 cm wide held on a short petiole of 5 - 10 mm long. The leaves have 3 -5 pairs of lateral veins, tiny pockets known as domatia can be found on the underside, near the base of the lateral veins.
Flowers Flowers are dioecious where the female and male flowers are produced on the same tree, held on an inflorescence. The flowers are green, tubular, borne on the axils of branches. Lobes are curved backwards, the throat is covered in dense pale erect hairs.
Fruit The fruit is an orange, tear-shaped drupe measuring to 10 mm long by 9 mm wide. Each fruit contains 1 pyrene (pit) which is tear-shaped with bumps on the surface measuring to 9.6 mm long by 5.5 mm wide. Each pyrene contains 1 seed.
Habitat Occurs commonly in coastal areas and lowland forest.
Cultivation Dibridsonia conferta is intolerant to salt sprays, can be propagated by seeds.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Modification Stipule
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Cuneate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Green, Green - Light Green
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Tubular
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Orange
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe


References <1> Wong, K.M., et. al. (2019). Rubiaceae. Flora of Singapore, vol. 13, pp. 62-65. Singapore: Singapore Botanic Gardens, National Parks Board.

Image Repository



Master ID 29472
Species ID 3781
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 February 2024.