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Ficus virens Aiton

Family Name: Moraceae
Common Name: Grey Fig, Spotted Fig, 黄葛树
Full Sun Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Plant Native to Singapore Ornamental Leaves Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Weeping / Pendulous, Irregular
Maximum Height 35 m


Native Distribution From India to Solomon Islands (including Singapore)
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest, Coastal Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a latex-containing, strangling fig up to 35 m tall. It has a vast and spreading crown, and many aerial roots developing on the trunk or from the base of the lower limbs.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have thinly leathery leaf blades that are usually oval to slightly drop-shaped, 4–20 by 1.9–9 cm, and with distinct side veins below.
Flowers The plant is monoecious. Its male, female and gall flowers are found within the same syconium (fig). The flowers are tiny and develop within the syconium (fig).
Fruits Its short-stalked syconia (figs) are round, 7–12 mm wide, purple with dark spots when ripe, and develop singly or in pairs on the bare portions of leafy twigs, or in clusters of up to  4 figs on leafless older branchlets.
Habitat It grows in coastal, monsoon, savannah and secondary forests, and on cliffs and roadside trees. It occurs locally at Cluny Road, off Orchard Road, Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), and Tanglin Road.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are pollinated by the fig wasps, Blastophaga constabularis, Blastophaga coronata and Blastophaga glabellae. Its fruits are eaten by birds, gibbons, siamangs, and squirrels.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed or stem cuttings.
Etymology Latin Ficus, the commercial edible fig (Ficus carica); Latin virens, green, referring to the bright green foliage of the plant

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Purple


References Berg, C. C. & E. J. H. Corner. 2005. Ficus subgenus Ficus. Flora Malesiana, Series I. 17(2): 71–136

Image Repository



Master ID 29887
Species ID 4196
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 August 2022.