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Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam.) K.Schum.

Family Name: Apocynaceae
Synonyms: Cerbera oppositifolia Lam., Neisosperma oppositifolium (Lam.) Fosb. & Sach.
Common Name: Twin-Apple

Ochrosia oppositifolia or Twin-Apple is a tall tree that can grow to 60 m tall. This native exudates a white milky sap when bruised, has spoon-shaped leaves and whitish to cream white flowers. The fruit known as schizocarp splits into 2 oval, elliptic to almost round capsules which ripens from green to yellow or orange.

Full Sun Moderate Water Native to Singapore Coastal Plant Suitable for Roadsides Fragrant Plant Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 60 m


Native Distribution Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga.
Native Habitat Terrestrial, Shoreline
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Presumed Nationally Extinct (NEx))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 60 m tall, with white, milky latex when bruised.
Foliage Leaves are 3 - 5 whorled, fleshy, spoon shaped rarely elliptic with 21 - 42 pairs of veinlets, between 6.5 - 36 cm long by 3.4 - 18 cm wide.
Flowers Flowers are borne in an inflorescence in whorls of 2 - 4, between 2 - 17 cm long. They are whitish to yellowish white, tubular, 5-petalled, glabrous outside, short dense hairs on the inside.
Fruits The fruit is known as a Schizocarp where it splits into 2 oval to elliptic or almost round, single-seeded capsule which ripens from green to yellow or orange.
Similar Occurs in primary or old secondary forest, hill slopes, river margins or swamps.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are pollinated by insects.
Etymology Genus Ochrosia from a Greek word which means pale-yellow, referring to the whitish flowers. Latin oppositifolia, leaves arranged in pairs, opposite each other on the stem, referring to the leaf arrangement in the species.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal ( It is used to treat fever and stomach problems in Vietnam folk medicine.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping The plant resembles a more neatly branching frangipani (Plumeria species or hybrids). It is a tree suitable for gardens, parks and possibly roadsides.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Form, Fragrant (Flowers)
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite, Whorled
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate, Retuse, Rounded

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White, Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal, Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Cyme
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Orange, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Schizocarp
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Few (1-5)


References Middleton, D.J. & Rodda, M. (2019). Apocynanceae. Flora of Singapore, vol. 13, pp. 421-630. Singapore, Singapore Botanic Gardens: National Parks Board.

Image Repository



Master ID 30185
Species ID 4494
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 22 November 2022.