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Luffa cylindrica M. Roem.

Family Name: Cucurbitaceae
Synonyms: Momordica luffa, Alsomitra cylindrica, Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.
Common Name: Sponge Gourd, Dish-cloth Gourd, Smooth Loofah, 丝瓜

There are no gourds like the Sponge Gourd! Not only can the young tasty fruit be cooked and eaten, the fibrous mature fruit can be used as a natural sponge. The high shock and water absorbency of these fibres allow for its infinite use, ranging from general cleaning, cosmetics, biofilters to machinery insulation.

Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Bee Attracting Plants Fruit & Vegetable Ornamental Flowers Climber, Vine and Liana

Name

Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Synonyms
Common Names
Comments
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Climber, Vine & Liana
Lifespan (in Singapore) Semi-Annual / Annual-Like
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic

Biogeography

Native Distribution Old World tropics
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herbaceous climber
Foliage Leaves dark green, simple, palmately-lobed, rough-textured and with hairy stalks that are 5-10 cm long.
Stems Stem five-angled, growing up to 15 m in length, with 2 - 6 tendrils at each point where tendrils extend.
Flowers Flowers deep yellow, growing up to 5-10 cm in diameter and unisexual. Male flowers are borne on stalks on unbranched elongated inflorescences, known as racemes, while female flowers are solitary and borne in the same leaf-axils as the male flowers. Flowers open in the day.
Fruits Fruit dry and fibrous, splitting from a lid-like structure, known as an operculum, located at the apex of the fruit. Subcylindrical in shape, smooth, not prominently ribbed and growing to 30-60 cm long, the fruit has a fibrous spongy skeleton network inside, containing numerous seeds that are smooth and black with a narrow wing-like margin. Green in colour when young, the fruit turns dry and brown when mature, together with the disappearance of its soft internal tissue.
Habitat The genus Luffa is native to the Old World (4 species) and New World (3 species) tropics. Wild forms of L. cylindrica, one of the Old World species, can be found in Burma to the Philippines and southwards to north-easthern Australia and Tahiti. Now cultivated pantropically, it is not known where it was first domesticated. The plant also grows wild as an escape from cultivation. It grows best in the low humid tropics, up to 500 m altitude. However, excellent cultivars have emerged from Japan, grown during the summer season.
Cultivation Rich soils with high organic matter content, good drainage and pH values of 6.5 to 7.5 are preferred. Sandy loams may also be used as a growing medium, but sufficient nutrients must be supplied. This species is intolerant of too much water, with high rainfall especially harmful during flowering and fruiting seasons. Differences in daylength sensitivity exist amongst the cultivars, there being day-neutral, short-day and long-day cultivars.
Etymology Luffa, or loofah, is derived from the Arabic name, louff, while the specific epithet, cylindrica, refers to the shape of the fruit.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves, Edible Flowers)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Immature fruits, young leaves and flower buds are used as vegetables. The young fruit is cooked or fried for use in soups or sliced and dried for later use. Young fruits from the sweet cultivars may be eaten raw like cucumbers or pickled if small in size. Mature fruits are fibrous, bitter and inedible, containing purgative substances. The seeds are a source of edible oil. )
Medicinal ( The fibres, charred and fresh fruits, seeds, leaves and sap from the stem are used medicinally, particularly in Japan and China.)
[Others]: The mature fruit is the source of the loofah sponge, which has many commercially important uses. Rind and seeds are removed from the mature, leaving behind the internal fibrous spongy network, which is the part that is used. During World War 2, loofah sponges were used as engine filters, because Japan, the main producer of engine filters, had stopped their export. During that time, the sponge was also used in steel helmets and armoured vehicles for their shock- and sound-absorbing properties. Today, loofah sponges are used as insulating material, bath sponges, door and bath mats, insoles, sandals and even gloves.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Vertical Greenery / Green Wall, Container Planting

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bee-Attracting
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed

Foliar

Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Rough
Foliar Modification Foliar Tendril
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Palmate)
Foliar Venation Palmate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Herbaceous

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Monoecious
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Inflorescence Type Raceme
Flowering Opening Time Daytime
Flower Lifespan on Plant Several Days

Fruit, Seed & Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Capsule

Image Repository

Images

Others

Master ID 30539
Species ID 4848
Species record last updated on: 02 October 2019.
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