Classifications and Characteristics
|Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
|Plant Growth Form
|Lifespan (in Singapore)
|Mode of Nutrition
|0.2 m to 0.6 m
|Southern China, throughout Southeast Asia (including Singapore), to the Pacific Islands.
|Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
|Preferred Climate Zone
|Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
|Local Conservation Status
|Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))
Description and Ethnobotany
|It is a stoloniferous herb, 15-60 cm tall.
|Its stalked leaves are arranged in a rosette, and have leaf blades that are cordate to sagittate, occasionally variegated, 7-35 × 4-18 cm.
|Its male and female flowers are arranged in a stalked inflorescence. The inflorescence (also known as a spadix) is encased within a pale green, modified, boat-shaped spathe (a leaf structure that resembles a petal), 3.5-12 cm long.
|Its fruits are berries.
|It grows in the understrorey of dense tropical forests, often on moist soils.
|Its flowers are pollinated by insects such as beetles, and fruits are eaten by birds and other mammals.
|It can be propagated by seed or division of the stolons.
|It is suitable for growing in parks and gardens under shaded or semi-shaded conditions for its attractive leaves and elegant inflorescence.
|Desirable Plant Features
|Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage
|General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Flowerbed / Border, Interiorscape/ Indoor Plant
|Silver Garden, Naturalistic Garden
Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal
|Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna
|Seed or Spore Dispersal
Plant Care and Propagation
|Semi-Shade, Full Shade
|Lots of Water, Moderate Water
|Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils, Easy to Grow
|Mature Foliage Colour(s)
|Mature Foliage Texture(s)
|Simple / Unifoliate
|Foliar Arrangement Along Stem
|Rosulate / Rosette
|Foliar Attachment to Stem
|Non-Palm Foliage (Sagittate, Cordate)
|Foliar Apex - Tip
|Flower & Plant Sexuality
|Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
|Cream / Off-White, White
|Cluster / Inflorescence
|Spathe & Spadix
Fruit, Seed and Spore
|Mature Fruit Colour(s)
|Mature Fruit Texture(s)
|Glossy / Shiny
|The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.