Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Citrus aurantium 'Hutou Gan'

Family Name: Rutaceae
Common Name: Giant Golden Citrus, 虎头柑, 大砂柑
Full Sun Moderate Water Fruit or Vegetable Shrub Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m)), Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution China
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a shrub or a small tree.
Foliage Its leaves are dark green, ovate to elliptical with toothed margins. The leaf petioles are winged.
Stems Its young twigs are green and angular, turning grey with age.
Flowers Its flowers are white and fragrant.
Fruits Hutou Gan is globose to depressed-globose, measuring about 10 cm in diameter. The fruit skin is rough and bumpy, turning from green to orange when ripe.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Hutou Gan is very sour and usually it is used to make drinks.)
[Others]: In China and Taiwan, the fruit is used as decoration to celebrate the Spring Festival, a tradition to convey good wishes and good luck to the family.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Focal Plant, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Stem/Branch

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Grafting


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery, Thick
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate)
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) White

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Orange
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Rough, Bumpy / Tuberculate
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit
Mature Seed Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Mature Seed Texture(s) Smooth

Image Repository



Master ID 31693
Species ID 6092
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 22 February 2022.