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Bacopa monnieri


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.

Family Name: Plantaginaceae
Common Name: Smooth Water Hyssop, Herb of Grace, Brahmi


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant, Aquatic & Hydrophyte (Waterside / Marginal), Creeper
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution Subtropics and Tropics
Native Habitat Aquatic
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Cryptogenic

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Perennial herb with creeping growth habit.
Foliage Semi-succulent leaves are oblong or oval (1-1.5cm long, 0.3-0.5 cm wide). Unlike some of the other species in the Bacopa genus, crushed leaves are not fragrant. 
Flowers White to light blue or purple flowers are bell-shaped with 5 petals and 1 petal is larger than the others.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal:

Traditional Medicinal Uses

In Indian Ayurvedic medicine, the plant is used to treat psychosis, epilepsy and mental disorders. In Cuban traditional medicine, it is a treatment for rheumatism.

It is important to note that some therapeutic effects from traditional medicinal uses of plants are not currently supported or verified by scientific research.

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses Marsh / Bog, Aquarium / Aquascape, Pond / Lake / River, Riverine, Hanging Basket, Groundcover, Container Planting, Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline
Thematic Landscaping Marsh Garden, Water Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Invasive / Potentially Invasive

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bee-Attracting
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Rootzone Tolerance Waterlogged Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils, Easy to Grow
Propagation Method Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Sessile
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oblong)
Foliar Margin Entire, Serrulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Cuneate
Typical Foliar Area Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 )

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White, Purple, Blue
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Bilateral
Individual Flower Shape Campaulate / Bell-shaped

Image Repository



Master ID 32435
Species ID 6847
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 September 2023.