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Chrysanthemum × morifolium


Chrysanthemum × morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl.

Family Name: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Common Name: Chrysanthemum, Mums, Kekwa, 菊花


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant, Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.3 m to 0.9 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.3 m to 0.6 m


Native Distribution China. Introduced as an ornamental to North and South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and South Africa. 
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Perennial herbaceous hybrid up to 1 m tall. Stem becomes woody at the base over time.
Foliage Leaves are pubescent (covered with fine hair), olive green, have petioles of 1 - 2 cm long. Leaf blade is ovate to oblong ovate, measuring 4 - 10 cm by 3 - 5 cm, deeply lobed. Base is truncate to subcordate. 
Stems Stems are erect or ascending, sometimes procumbent. They are sparsely branched.
Flowers Inflorescence is a head composed of many ray and disk florets. This plant needs short days to flower. In Singapore, it may be difficult to get a plant to flower again after the flowers fade.
Taxonomy This hybrid is formed by crossing the following species: Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum x Chrysanthemum dichrum x Chrysanthemum indicum x Chrysanthemum nankingense x Chrysanthemum zawadzkii.
Cultivation This plant prefers cool climate and requires to be grown in areas with mean temperature of 16 - 24 degree Celsius. Grow in fertile, moist and well-drained soil rich with organic matter. Allow the soil to dry between watering. Avoid watering from above to avoid the risk of diseases. Pinch the tips when plant is about 15 cm tall to promote bushiness. 
Etymology The genus Chrysanthemum means golden-flower. The specific epithet morifolium means mulberry-leaved, in reference to the leaf shape that looks like those of mulberry. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Food (Fruit or Vegetable)

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses Small Gardens, Flowerbed / Border, Container Planting, Interiorscape/ Indoor Plant
Usage Hazard - Cons Remarks This plant may be toxic to pets, such as cats.

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Potential Problems Easily infested by aphids and white flies. 
Diseases White Rust. Symptoms include white to yellow spots on undersides of leaves. 
Pest(s) Sucking Insects
Propagation Method Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Pinnately Lobed / Pinnatifid
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Truncate / Square, Cordate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Compound Head / Capitulum


References <1> Li, L., Gu, L., Chen, Z., Wang, R., Ye, J. & Jiang, H. (2010). Toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium in rats. J Food Sci. 75(6):105-109.

Image Repository



Master ID 33604
Species ID 8018
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 03 February 2024.