Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Raphanus sativus (European radish)

Family Name: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
Semi-Shade Moderate Water Fruit & Vegetable Annual Herbaceous


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.6 m to 0.9 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.3 m to 0.6 m

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual or biennial herb.
Roots The edible taproot may be round, cylindrical or tapered.
Foliage Oblong leaves about 5-30 cm long are sparsely covered in short, white hairs and arranged in a rosette.
Flowers The 4-petaled flowers are arranged along a spike inflorescence.
Fruits The dry, dehiscent fruit is narrowly cylindrical with tapering ends and known as a silique.
Cultivation The edible taproot is usually harvested before flowering to ensure that it will be succulent.
Etymology The genus Raphanus is derived from the Greek word for radish and the specific epithet sativus means cultivated.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves, Edible Storage Organs)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The taproot is typically eaten raw and added to salads. The taproot becomes more spicy as the plant matures and it eventually becomes woody. Young leaves can be cooked as a leafy vegetable. The immature, pod-like fruits are also edible.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Planting Distance To 15
Fertilizing Before sowing seed, the soil should be mixed with organic fertilizer or aged manure.
Potential Problems Pests that commonly attack radishes are flea beetles, slugs, and snails.
Diseases Radishes are commonly attacked by Brassica downy mildew.
Pest(s) Chewing Insects
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Rosulate / Rosette
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Attenuate, Oblique / Asymmetrical

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Pink
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Bilateral
Individual Flower Shape Labiate / Lipped

Fruit, Seed & Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Silique

Image Repository



Master ID 33659
Species ID 8073
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.