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Treron curvirostra (Gmelin, 1789)

Family Name: Columbidae
Taxonomic Group: Vertebrates (Bird)
Common Name: Thick-billed Pigeon, Thick-billed Green Pigeon


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Taxonomic Group 2
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Common Names


Description Combination of thick red-based, greenish-yellow bill and blue or green eyering are distinctive. Feet red. Males have maroon mantle, grey crown and chestnut under tail coverts. Females have grey cap contrasting with green head, under tail coverts dull buff with olive green bars. Thighs dark green with white bars.

Ecology, Habitat & Location

Ecological Notes A forest frugivore of the canopy. Gregarious and nomadic during the non-breeding season which usually coincides with the fruiting season of the figs, Ficus spp., an important food source for Treron pigeons and other frugivores. When a fig with ripe fruits is located, flocks of up to 60 can be found feeding with other pigeons, starlings, bulbuls and the occasional Long-tailed Macaque troop for up to a week. During the breeding season, the flocks disperse. The nest is a flimsy structure of small twigs and dry leaves. 
Associated Flora Ficus spp.
Habitats Forest
Distribution Present in the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment Nature Reserves. Vagrants have also been recorded in sites outside the forest including Sembawang, Poyan, Bukit Brown, Jurong Lake, Tuas, Sungei Buloh and Kranji. This species is found in Nepal, southern China and Southeast Asia.
Nature Reserves Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve


Trends & Threats Though it is found in three protected areas, its population levels at the other sites are small, and/or are in unprotected areas outside the Singapore Green Plan that may be subject to development.
Scientific Interest & Potential Value One of the indicator species for the quality of remaining forest in Singapore and a seed disperser that helps to maintain tree populations.
Conservation Notes An estimated population of between 100 and 200 birds. Detailed life history studies should be conducted to determine and improve the viability of the central forest population.


Species Status Resident
Conservation Status Uncommon
Singapore Red Data Book 2008 Status Endangered (EN)




References Davison, G.W.H., Ng, P.K.L. & Ho, H.C (Eds.). 2008. The Singapore Red Data Book (2nd Edition). Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore). 285pp

Lim, K.S. & Gardner, D. 1997. Birds: An illustrated field guide to the birds of Singapore. Singapore: Sun Tree Publishing Limited. 226pp

Wang, L.K. & Hails, C.J. 2007. An annotated checklist of the birds of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement no. 15. 179pp


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Species record last updated on: 23 December 2020.

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