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Caesalpinia pulcherrima


Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.

Family Name: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Synonyms: Poinciana pulcherrima
Common Name: Peacock Flower, Barbados Flower Fence, Flower Fence, Jambol Merak, Cana, Barbados Pride, Red Bird of Paradise, Paradise Flower, Flamboyant Tree, Gold Mohur, Pride of Barbados, Jambul Merak, 金凤花, 洋凤花, 孔雀花


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub, Tree (Small (6m-15m), Shrubby (1m-5m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution Tropical Americas
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Upright shrub, sometimes small tree, able to grow up to 3 - 6 m tall and with a spread of 2 - 4 m wide.
Foliage Bi-pinnate foilage with small, oval leaflets.
Stems Green, turning grayish-brown as the stems become woodier, covered with spines, which swell at the base upon maturity.
Flowers Orange, yellow and red combination, scentless with long stamens and pistil. There is one modified petal which is smaller than the other 4 petals, flowers borne in terminal clusters.
Fruits Oblong, flat pod, thin, up to 10 cm long. Pods split to disperse the single row of flattened seeds.
Cultivation This attractive shrub flowers throughout the year. Once a year hard pruning is recommended to retain the vigor of the plant. Blooming is reduced when plant is under too much shade. It can be easily propagated by seeds.
Etymology Genus epithet 'Caesalpinia' honours the Italian physician, philosopher and botanist, Andrea Caesalpino, and species epithet 'pulcherrima' means 'most beautiful', referring to the flowers.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Medicinal ( The Indonesians pound the roots and give it to children afflicted with convulsions. The bark is used to treat diarrhea. The flowers are claimed to be effective against intestinal worms and cure sores. The leaves are believed to have purgative properties and used to induce abortion and for fever. The west Indians pound the flowers and leaves into a decoction to treat fever. The seeds are used to cure breathing difficulty and chest pain.)

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Easy to Grow
Landscape Uses General, Flowerbed / Border, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Butterfly Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Stem/Branch, Spines/Thorns - Leaf, Weak Branches

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Butterfly Food Plant, Bee-Attracting
Pollination Method(s) Abiotic (Self-Pollinated), Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee), Insects (Butterfly, Moth))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Planting Distance From 1
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Black
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Papery
Foliar Type Compound (Bipinnate)
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Truncate / Square

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Orange, Red, Yellow / Golden
Flowering Period Free-Flowering

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Legume / Pod

Image Repository



Master ID 444
Species ID 1740
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 15 February 2022.