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Dendrobium crumenatum


Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

Family Name: Orchidaceae
Synonyms: Mokara crumenatum, Epidendrum caninum, Aporum crumenatum, Mokara crumenata, Dendrobium kwashotense
Common Name: Pigeon Orchid, White Dove Orchid, Pigeon Flower, Sparrow Orchid, Bag-shaped Dendrobium, Anggerek Merpati, Daun Sepulih Tulang, 鸽子兰, 木石斛, 鸽子斛


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Epiphyte, Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic, Heterotrophic (Symbiotic - Mutualistic Partner of)
Plant Shape Shrubby


Native Distribution India, Sri Lanka, South China, Taiwan, Indochina, Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))
CITES Protection True (Appendix II)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A sympodial, epiphytic, lowland orchid.
Foliage The leaves are coriaceous, deciduous and lanceolate to elliptical in shape while being slightly notched at the leaf apex. 
Stems The multiple stems can grow up to 30cm in length which are basally enlarged, end off at slender tips and are covered with scarious sheaths 2 to 3cm long. The stems have a pendulous growth habit. 
Flowers The white flowers are fragrant with a yellow tinted throat and have a short lifespan, the flowers last less than a day.  
Habitat It is found in semi-deciduous and deciduous dry lowland forests and savannah-like woodlands at an altitude of 500 metres. 
Etymology The flower buds look somewhat like little pigeons hence its common name 'Pigeon Orchid'. The species name is derived from the latin word 'crumenatus' meaning 'bag-shaped'. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Food (Herb and Spice)
Others: Medicinal: Leaf poultice applied to pimples and boils by Malays and Indonesians. Juice from swollen pseudobulbs used as eardrops to treat earache. Common name Daun Sepulih Tulang (Bone Restoring Leaf) suggests use as treatment for bone-related ailments. Products: Stem fibres used to make braiding materials for hats in Philippines. Cultural: Planted near entrance of house in some Malaysian states as a good-luck talisman to ward off evil spirits from entering house.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers) (Day)
Landscape Uses Coastal, Vertical Greenery / Green Wall
Thematic Landscaping Fragrant / Aromatherapy Garden, Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Abiotic (Wind)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade, Full Sun
Water Preference Little Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Rootzone Tolerance Shallow Media (8 -10cm), Dry Soils / Drought
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Division, Tissue Culture


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Leathery, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Acaulescent
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root), Aboveground (Aerial Root)
Specialised Storage Organ(s) Underground (Rhizome), Aboveground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Symmetry Bilateral
Flowering Opening Time Daytime
Flower Lifespan on Plant 1 Day
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Black, Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Dehiscent Dry Fruit , Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 629
Species ID 1924
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 March 2022.