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Eulophia graminea Lindl.

Family Name: Orchidaceae
Synonyms: Eulophia ramosa, Eulophia sinensis, Eulophia gusukumai
Common Name: Grass Orchid, Bawang Hantu, 禾草芋蘭, 美冠兰
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Native to Singapore Coastal Ornamental Flowers Woody Herbaceous


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub (Herbaceous)
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby
Maximum Height 0.5 m


Native Distribution Indian subcontinent, China, Hongkong, Taiwan, Japan, Indochina, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest, Grassland / Savannah/ Scrubland, Disturbed Area / Open Ground), Shoreline (Sandy Beach)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status 1 Native to Singapore
CITES Protection True (Appendix II)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Terrestrial orchid.
Roots A thick mass of white roots emerge from the base of a round bulb (5 - 7 cm wide).
Foliage Light green, thin leaves are linear and narrow. The leaves are deeply grooved at the midvein. Leaves have a large leaf sheath that wraps around the stem.
Flowers Small, greenish yellow flowers have brown, net-like markings. The crested lip is white with a dark purplish red center. The inflorescence stalk bears 10 - 20 flowers.
Etymology The genus Eulophia comes from the Greek eu-lopos, meaning beautifully crested and referring to the crested lip.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Poor Infertile Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Landscape Uses General, Coastal, Riverine
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Division


Foliage Retention Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Monocot)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Acaulescent
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)
Specialised Storage Organ(s) Aboveground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Brown, Green, Pink, Red, White
Inflorescence Type Raceme
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed & Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown, Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 702
Species ID 1997
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 03 July 2020.