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Bouea macrophylla Griff.

Family Name: Anacardiaceae
Common Name: Kundangan, Kundang, Gandaria, Setar, Gandariah, Gondongan, Kondongan, Rembunia, Remenia, Rumia
Full Sun Semi Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Fruit or Vegetable Herb or Spice Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded, Conical
Maximum Height 27 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, West Java and Borneo.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is an evergreen tree up to 27 m tall, with a dense, bushy, conical or round crown. Dark grey, gummy drops are produced when the bark is cut.
Crown Dense, bushy, conical or round crown.
Trunk Light brown fissured bark and often with pendulous, hairless, angular or flattend branchlets.
Foliage Its opposite, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are egg-shaped-oblong to lance-shaped, 10–30 by 4–8 cm, and tapering to blunt tips.
Flowers Its branched flowering shoots are 4.5–13 cm long, and found often on the twigs behind the leaves. They bear very small flowers that are light yellowish-green or light yellow, soon becoming brown.
Fruits Its fleshy fruits are almost round, yellow or orange when ripe, and 3.5–5 by 3–4 cm. The fruits taste sweet to sour and has a faint turpentine smell.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests up to 300 m altitude. It occurs locally in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, and Pulau Tekong.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insected pollinated. The ripe fruits are eaten by frugivorous birds and mammals. The leaves are also the food plants for the moth species Archips mimicus, Gymnoscelis imparatalis, Penicillaria jocosatrix and Syllepte cohaesalis.
Cultivation Bouea macrophylla is usually propagated from seed but also easily propagated through marcotting and grafting.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves, Edible Seeds)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Although even when fully ripe, the fruit is still generally rather sour and consumed fresh, cooked in syrup or made into excellent compote. Look for fruit that has a deep shade of yellow or orange. The young fruits are used in the making of ‘sambal’ as the bright purple cotyledons in the big seed adding to the attraction of concoction. The edible fruits are made into jam. The young leaves are also consumed fresh together with the ‘sambal’.;Herb and Spice)
Timber & Products ( The timber is used for constructional work, and to make scabbards for the kris.)
[Others]: As it has very dense foliage, it is suitable to be an excellent shade tree.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks and gardens.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Moth Food Plant (Leaves)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Grafting, Marcotting, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green, Purple
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Purple
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Obtuse
Foliar Base Acute, Cuneate
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Remarks Young leaves are usually deep violet, but sometimes strikingly white when they emerge.

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Light grey. Dark grey, gummy drops are produced when the bark is cut.
Mature Bark Texture Fissured
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Brown, Green, Green - Light Green, Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Orange, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1460
Species ID 2753
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 December 2021.