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Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. ex Wall.) Benth. & Hook.f.

Family Name: Fagaceae
Synonyms: Castanopsis sumatrana
Common Name: Braided Chestnut, Berangan, Berangan Betul, Berangan Makan, Berangan Padi, Parang Berangan
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Caterpillar Food Plant Native to Singapore Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 30 m


Native Distribution From Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, to Indonesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to about 30 m tall with an irregular crown.
Trunk Its grey bark is rough, with lenticels.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are inverse lanced-shaped and about 15–20 by 5.1–11 cm. The leaf blades are hairless above but with hairs beneath.
Flowers Its clusters of male, female and bisexual flowering shoots are 10–15 cm long. Both male and female flowers may be solitary or in clusters of 3–7 (for male) and 3–4 (for female).
Fruits A cupule encloses the fruit completely. Its depressed obovoid-globose cupule is 2–4 by 2–3 cm, with fine brownish-yellow hairs. The cupule has 3–4 lobes marked with curving bands that have thick tubercles. The fruit (nut) is 2–3 by 1.5–2 cm, and densely covered with reddish-brown hair. Fruits are also in clusters of 1–4, with the central fruit being rounded-triangular in cross section, while the smaller lateral fruits are egg-shaped or rounded.
Habitat It grows in lowland forest up to 600 m altitude.
Associated Fauna It has insect-pollinated flowers. It is also the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the butterfly, the ciliate blue (Anthene emolus) and the moth Calliteara angulata.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Castanopsis, resembling chestnut, referring to the relationship between this genus and Castanea (chestnuts); Latin inermis, without prickles, spines or thorns, referring to the unarmed fruits
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Seeds)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping The plant may be able to tolerate park conditions.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Fruit

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves), Caterpillar Moth Food Plant (Leaves)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna), Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Grey
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Rough
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1497
Species ID 2790
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 04 December 2020.