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Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble

Family Name: Fagaceae
Common Name: Greater Malayan Chestnut, Berangan Betul, Berangan Makan, Berangan Padi, Parang Berangan
Full Sun Moderate Water Native to Singapore Fruit or Vegetable Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 36 m


Native Distribution From Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore to Borneo
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to about 36 m tall.            
Trunk It has fissured bark and may have buttress roots.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have thickly leathery leaf blades that are oval, about 10–25 by 3–10 cm, hairless and glossy above, and densely covered with hair below.
Flowers Its male flowering shoots are 10–20 cm long, whereas the female flowering shoots are 10–15 cm long. Its male flowers grow in clusters of 3, while the female flowers are solitary.          
Fruits A cupule encloses the fruit (nut) completely. Its ovoid-globose cupules are 8–10 by 6–7 cm and have branched spines.Its egg-shaped fruits are solitary, and 6–8 by 3–5 cm.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests up to about 600 m altitude. It occurs locally in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna It has insect-pollinated flowers.
Cultivation It may be suitable for parks. It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Castanopsis, resembling chestnut, referring to the relationship between this genus and Castanea (chestnuts); Latin megacarpa, large-fruited, referring to its large fruits
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The nuts are edible, but may induce flatulence.)
Timber & Products ( Its bark contains tannin.)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery

Image Repository



Master ID 29485
Species ID 3794
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 August 2022.