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Gironniera nervosa


Gironniera nervosa Planch.

Family Name: Cannabaceae
Common Name: Kasap, Common Rough-Laurel, Hampas Tebu, Medang Berbulu, Medang Hampas Tebu, Medang Hitam, Medang Kasap, Medang Merpoi, Medang Tarah, Mesekam, Tangisan Burung, Tapis, Tarah


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 40 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, the Moluccas, and New Guinea
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree that can grow up to 40 m tall, and with branches that are covered by short, brown hairs.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have thickly leathery leaf blades that are rigid, elliptic-lance-shaped to elliptic-oblong, 6–29 by 2.5–13 cm, with asymmetrical bases, and prominent secondary veins. The leaf blades are also generally hairless above, and densely covered with soft, silky and slender yellowish-brown hairs below.
Flowers It produces unisexual flowers. Its flowering clusters have only male or female flowers, and are inserted at the leaf axils. Its male flowering clusters are up to 8 cm long, and each bears 20–100 flowers. Its male flowers are 1–2 mm across. Its female flowering clusters are up to 6 cm long, and each bears 2–25 flowers. Its female flowers are 2–3 by 1.5–2 mm.
Fruit Its fruiting clusters develop at the leaf axils, contain 2–8 fruits, and are up to 3 cm long. Its fruits are drupes, partially round or egg-shaped, short-beaked, hairy, dull orange, and 5–10 by 3–6 by 3–5 mm.
Habitat It grows as an understorey tree in lowland, hill to lower montane forests, to 1400 m altitude, although usually found below 700 m altitude.
Associated Fauna Its fruits are eaten by birds. It is also the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the butterflies, the grey sailor (Neptis leucoporos cresina), and the purple duke (Eulaceura osteria kumana).
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Gironniera, after Gironnier, a French citizen (1840); Latin nervosa, with well-developed or conspicuous nerves, referring to the prominent secondary veins of the leaf blades of this species
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products: Its wood is used to build houses.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks or large gardens under the shade of trees. The plant has attractive flowers and leaves.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting, Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves, Associated with: Neptis leucoporos, Eulaceura osteria)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute, Leathery, Thick
Young Flush Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong, Oblanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Base Oblique / Asymmetrical
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Orange
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type

Image Repository



Master ID 1641
Species ID 2934
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 11 April 2024.