Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website

Gironniera subaequalis


Gironniera subaequalis Planch.

Family Name: Cannabaceae
Common Name: Medang Bulanak, Medang Bulapo

Gironniera subaequalis or Medang Bulanak is a large-sized tree native to Singapore. Growing to 40 m tall, it has thick, leathery, ovate-elliptic to elliptic-oblong leaves covered in short, yellowish-brown, appressed hairs. Flowers are unisexual, male inflorescence are much-branched, bearing 40-100 small flowers, measuring to 3 - 7 cm in length while the female inflorescence bear 2 - 15 larger flowers, measuring 3 - 6 cm in length. The fruit is a tear to lens-shaped drupe with a bifurcated tail-like tip, held in a cluster of 2 - 10, ripening from green to yellow.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Maximum Height 40 m


Native Distribution Andaman Island, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Island, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a large tree that can grow up to 40 m tall.
Foliage Leaves are thick, leathery, broadly ovate-elliptic to elliptic-oblong measuring 6 - 21 cm long by 3.5 - 13 cm wide. The midrib and veins are slightly flattened above, raised below with sparse to dense, short, yellowish-brown, appressed hairs. Leaf margin are smooth, occasionally, when young, margins can be finely toothed at the the tips. The leaves are held on a short stalk measuring 5 - 15 mm long by 1 - 2 mm wide, covered in sparse to dense, short, yellowish-brown, flattened hairs.
Flowers Flowers are unisexual and observed to produce male and female flowers on separate individuals. The male inflorescence are pendulous, much-branched, 40 - 100 flowered, measuring to 3 - 7 cm in length, flowers are 1.5 - 2.5 mm wide. The female inflorescence bears 2 - 15 flowers, measuring 3 - 6 cm in length, flowers are 2 - 4 mm long by 2 mm wide.
Fruit The fruit is a round, tear to lens-shaped drupe with a bifurcated tail-like tip, held in a cluster of 2 - 10. Each fruit measures at 8 - 9 mm long by 5 - 6 mm wide, ripens from green to yellow upon maturity.
Habitat Occurs in primary and secondary forest, 0 - 1300 m in altitude and more commonly in lowland forests between 200 - 500 m in altitude. <1, 2>
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Vertebrates (Other Mammal))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Ovate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Recticulate
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded, Acute, Attenuate
Foliar Base Attenuate, Rounded / Obtuse, Oblique / Asymmetrical

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Green
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe


References <1> Ridley, H.N., et. al. (1924). The Flora of Malay Peninsula, vol. 3, pp. 320-321. London: L. Reeve & Co., Ltd.

<2> Soepadmo, E. (1977). Gironniera. In: Soepadmo, E. (ed.) Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, Seed Plants, vol. 8, pt. 2, pp. 75. Leiden: National Herbarium of the Netherlands.

Image Repository



Master ID 33236
Species ID 7650
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 11 April 2024.