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Gmelina arborea


Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm.

Family Name: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Synonyms: Gmelina rheedei Hook., Gmelina arborea var. canescens Haines, Gmelina arborea f. dentata Moldenke, Gmelina arborea var. glaucescens C.B.Clarke, Gmelina oblongifolia Roxb., Gmelina sinuata Link, Premna arborea Roth 
Common Name: Gamhar, Beechwood, Kashmir Tree, White Teak, Vemane


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Growth Form Tree
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution Bangladesh, India, China, Cambodia, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Large tree, able to grow up to about 30 m tall in its natural habitat.
Crown Crown is wide-spreading and forms a shady crown.
Trunk Girth size can reach up to 4.5 m, bark is smooth and pale grey to white or reddish-brown, surface lenticellate.
Foliage Green broadly ovate leaves, opposite-decussate arrangement, measuring about 10 - 25 cm long and 7 - 20 cm wide, petiole about 5 - 15 cm long, leaves on young plants tend to be strongly lobed, 2 large glands at the base of each leaf.
Flowers Yellowish-brown 5-lobed flowers, usually 1 - 3, borne on axillary and terminal panicle inflorescence, each flower is about 2.5 - 5 cm wide, lower lobe is yellow and about 2 times as long as the rest of the lobes.
Fruit Fruit is a yellow drupe about 10 - 25 mm wide, contains 1 - 3 seeds.
Habitat Can be found in tropical semi-evergreen, sub-montane, deciduous, sal and dry teak forests.
Etymology Genus Gmelina is named after Johann Georg Gmelin (1709 - 1755), a German professor of botany of Tubingen University. Species arborea means tree-liked and branched.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Medicinal: The fruit and bark can be used for treatment for bilious fever.
Timber & Products: Wood is used for firewood and production of good quality pulp.
Agriculture - Forestry: Leaves are used as fodder for cattle.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden, Brown
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary, Terminal

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Yellow / Golden

Image Repository



Master ID 1646
Species ID 2939
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 08 December 2022.