Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Gmelina dalrympleana (F. Muell.) H.J. Lam

Family Name: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Synonyms: Vitex dalrympleana F.Muell., Ephialis simplicifolia Sol. ex Seem., Gmelina macrophylla (R.Br.) Benth., Vitex macrophylla R.Br.
Common Name: Dalrymple's White Beech, Grey Teak
Full Sun Moderate Water Ornamental Flowers Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution New Guinea, Tropical Australia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A tree up to 25 m tall.
Trunk The bark is grey and fissured.
Foliage Leaves are broad ovate to elliptic ovate, measuring 10-25 cm long and 7-15 cm wide, with a pair of nectariferous glands at the base of leaf blade.
Flowers Flowers are borne in clusters, up to 30 cm long. Each flower is 5-lobed, creamy-white or pink, with a yellow throat and a purple lip.
Fruits Fruits are obovoid, about 2 cm long, green when unripe, dark pink or red when fully ripe. Fruits in the same cluster ripen at different times. 
Etymology Genus Gmelina is named after Johann Georg Gmelin (1709 - 1755), a German botanist and naturalist.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Pink, Cream / Off-White, Purple, Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red, Pink

Image Repository



Master ID 1647
Species ID 2940
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 08 December 2022.