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Mangifera caesia Jack

Family Name: Anacardiaceae
Synonyms: Mangifera kemanga Blume
Common Name: Binjai
Full Sun: 6-8h Lots of Water Moderate Water Native to Singapore Fruit & Vegetable Ornamental Flowers Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical, Irregular
Maximum Height 45 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a large tree, up to 45 m tall.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves are thick and leathery, about 7.5-41.5 cm long and 2.5-11 cm wide.
Flowers Its violet to lilac flowers are up to 1 cm long each, borne on a branched inflorescences up to 40 cm long.
Fruits Its fleshy fruits are pear-shaped drupes, that ripen to pale brown, 10-19 cm long and 5-10 cm wide, containing a single pink seed enclosed with a hard endocarp.
Habitat It grows in lowland primary or swamp forests, and also along riverbanks, up to 450 m altitude.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. The fruits are eaten by mammals. It is also the food plant for the mango fruit borer or mango fruit boring caterpillar (Citripestis eutraphera).
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Mangi, Indian mango, vernacular name for a Mangifera species; Latin caesia, lavender colour, referring to the colour of the flowers.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The young leaves are used to prepare ‘lalab’ (aleafy vegetables dish). The fresh fruits are eaten. The fruits are used to make home-made creamy juices, and eaten as a tamarind substitute. They are also utilised as ingredients in the preparation of ‘sambal’ (a type of chilli-spice mixture), or ‘rojak’ (a fruit and vegetable salad dish).)
Cultural / Religious ( Heritage Tree : There are 4 individuals of Mangifera caesia listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. They are found all over various parts of Singapore. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register. )

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is a widely-known, cultivated fruit tree. It is a tree suitable for large gardens, and parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Riverine

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water, Lots of Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Rosulate / Rosette
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Purple
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Yellow / Golden, Cream / Off-White, Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1718
Species ID 3011
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 14 October 2021.