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Shorea roxburghii


Shorea roxburghii G.Don

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Common Name: Temak


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular


Native Distribution From India, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand to northern Peninsular Malaysia.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a small to large tree, with small buttresses or sometimes without.
Trunk Its bark is deeply, narrowly and irregularly fissured.
Foliage Its stalked, alternately-arranged leaves have leaf blades that are elliptic-oblong, and are about 12 by 5 cm.
Flowers Its white-petaled flowers are about 2.5 cm across, with a red-tinge in the centre, and are borne on clusters.
Fruit Its fruits are winged nuts, about 9 cm long, consisting of a narrowly ovate nut enclosed within 3 long outer wings that are 9 by 1.2 cm, and 2 short and narrow inner wings that are up to 4.5 cm long.
Habitat It grows in lowland evergreen and deciduous forests.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Shorea, commemorating Sir John Shore (1751–1834), a Governor-General of India; Latin roxburghii, commemorating William Roxburgh (17511815), superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, India
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products: Its timber is used in construction of houses.
Cultural / Religious: Heritage Trees : There is currently one individual of Shorea roxburghii listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found at Singapore Botanic Gardens. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks and streetscapes for its versatility in adapting to environmental conditions.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen, Drought / Semi-Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Young Flush Texture(s) Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
Foliar Modification Stipule
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 2.5 (Tree - Open Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Red, White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Indehiscent Dry Fruit , Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1834
Species ID 3127
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 February 2022.