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Ficus rumphii 'Variegata'


Ficus rumphii 'Variegata'

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Urostigma cordifolium 'Variegata', Ficus cordifolia 'Variegata'
Common Name: Variegated Rumph's Fig, Variegated Mock Bodhi Tree, 金斑心叶榕, 金斑假菩提树


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded
Maximum Height 12 m to 15 m

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Small to medium-sized tree, reaching around 15m height under cultivation. Crown rounded and dense.
Trunk Solitary for standalone trees, massively swollen even in juvenile specimens, with network of clasping aerial roots that eventually thicken to form pillar roots. Bark grey-brown, shallowly-cracked.
Foliage Leaves inconsistently variegated with hues varying from leaf to leaf, even on the same shoot -- with irregular light to dark green centres that merge distinctly or smudgingly into unevenly-toned yellow to yellowish-green margins. Some shoots observed to produce completely green leaves, an indication that the chimeric variegation of this cultivar is not stable. Leaves characteristically cordate in shape, with undulating edges and very slight drip-tip. Species form grown in sub-tropical regions loses its leaves upon onset of winter and sprouts new foliage ones during spring. Local specimens of this cultivar have not been observed to exhibit leaf-shed, but are expected to be irregularly semi-deciduous.
Others - Plant Morphology Category: Hemi-epiphytic strangler tree-fig. (Wild specimens of the species form usually start life as self-sown epiphytes on host trees or in building crevices.)Flowers & Fruits: Plant is monoecious, with very tiny male, gall (sterile) and female flowers produced on the inner wall of separate synconium receptacles on the same tree. "Figging" has yet to be observed for this cultivar under local conditions.Ethymology: Genus epithet 'Ficus' derived from Latin name for edible fig Ficus carica. Species epithet 'rumphii' named in honor of tragedy-plagued German-born Dutch naturalist, Georg Everhard Rumpf (Rumphius, 1627-1702), who authored the seminal 'Herbarium Amboinens', which first described several tropical plant species later credited to father of modern taxonomy Linnaeus, and whose content contributed to Linnaeus' subsequent development of the binomial taxonomic classification system.
Cultivation Slow-growing but hardy. Drought-tolerant when mature. Appears to prefer acidic soils. Allow enough room for growth of trunk. For a more aesthetic appearance, remove totally green shoots whenever these appear. Propagate by stem cuttng and air-layering. Note: All cut or bruised plant surfaces exude a milky sap, which is toxic upon ingestion and a possible skin irritant in susceptible individuals..

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Landscape Uses Suitable for Bonsai, General, Shade Providing Tree / Palm, Focal Plant, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Golden Garden, Naturalistic Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Irritant - Sap
Usage Hazard - Cons Remarks Bruised plant surfaces exude milky white sap that is toxic if ingested, and may cause skin irritation in some individuals.

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Slow
Rootzone Tolerance Drought Tolerant, Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Acidic (low pH) Soils
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Stem Cutting, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Drought / Semi-Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green, Yellow / Golden
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Cordate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Cuspidate
Foliar Base Truncate / Square
Typical Foliar Area Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Greyish-brown
Mature Bark Texture Cracked
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root), Aboveground (Aerial Root)
Specialised Storage Organ(s) Aboveground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
Inflorescence Type Syconium
Flowering Period Remarks Not observed yet in Singapore

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Multiple Syconium (receptacle)

Image Repository



Master ID 29167
Species ID 3476
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 13 June 2024.