Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website

Back

Bruguiera hainesii C.G.Rogers

Family Name: Rhizophoraceae
Common Name: Berus Mata Buaya, Eye of the Crocodile
Full Sun: 6-8h Semi-Shade Lots of Water Bird-Attracting Native to Singapore Coastal Ornamental Foliage Tree

Name

Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Name Status (wrt SBG BG-BASE)
Common Names
Comments

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Columnar
Maximum Height 33 m

Biogeography

Native Distribution From India to Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea It is estimated that only 200 individual trees of Bruguiera hainesii can be found in the wild, making it one of the most endangered mangrove tree species in the world.  In Singapore, there are currently only a total of four trees of this species found at Pasir Ris, Kranji Nature Trail and Pulau Ubin. Besides being classified as "Critically Endangered" in the Singapore Red Data Book (2nd edition, 2008), B. hainesii is also listed as a "Critically Endangered" species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.
Native Habitat Shoreline (Mangrove Forest, Backshore)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a medium to large-sized tree up to 33 m tall, with kneed roots that rise above the substrate. 
Trunk The tree has brown to grey bark covered with yellowish brown lenticels from bottom to top.
Roots Short buttresses and kneed roots.
Foliage Its opposite, long-stalked leaves have thinly-fleshy, leathery leaf blades that are oval to oval-oblong, 9–16 by 4–7 cm, shiny green on the upperside and light green on the underside. Leaf margins are smooth.
Flowers The pendulous flowers are borne on short stalks, in small clusters of about 2–3 at the axillary. Calyx of each flower is pale yellowish green, 18–22 by 5 mm, top-shaped, opening up into 10 pointed lobes at the distal end. Petals are 7–9 mm long, white, forked, hairy, with 2–4 bristles at the tip.
Fruits The fruit develops within the calyx, and becomes enlarged when ripened. The single seed germinates within the calyx while attached to the parent plant, forming a green hypocotyl that emerges from the calyx, known as a propagule. The propagule is cigar-shaped, slightly curved and thickened at the end, 9–22 by 1–1.2 cm, maturing from green to dark purple.
Habitat It grows on landward margins of mangrove forests that are relatively dry and flooded for only a few hours a day. It occurs locally in Western Catchment, Kranji Nature Trail, Sungei Loyang and Pulau Ubin.
Associated Fauna It has been reported that the flowers are pollinated by day-flying insects, such as butterflies. The loose pollen of the flowers are held under tension by the petals of the flower. These dehisce to scatter a cloud of pollen over the head of the visiting insect when it probes at the base of the flower. The Brown-throated and Copper-throated Sunbirds (Anthreptes malaccensis ) have been reported to feed at the flowers of Bruguiera hainesii.
Cultivation It is propagated by propagules produced on the tree, which can be collected when mature and planted straight into potting media.
Etymology Latin Bruguiera, after J. G. Bruguieres (1750–1799), French expolorer; Greek gymnos, naked, Latin hainesii, after Haines
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( It is used as firewood and charcoal. The timber is used for construction.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping This tree can be planted along the water edges of ponds and waterways, or on waterlogged soil for its attractive lush foliage. It is rather slow-growing, hence minimum maintenance is needed.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Waterlogged Soils (Does not Drain Site), Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline, Riverine, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog
Thematic Landscaping Water Garden, Marsh Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Flowers)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth), Vertebrates (Bird))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Viviparious Propagule

Foliar

Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Cuneate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Lenticellate
Root Type Underground, Aboveground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Green, White
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

References

References



Noske, R.A. 1993. Bruguiera hainesii: another bird-pollinated mangrove?. Biotropica. 25(4). 481-483

Sheue, C.R., J.W.H. Yong and Y.P. Yang. 2005. The Bruguiera (Rhizophoraceae) species in the mangroves of Singapore, especially on the new record and the rediscovery. Taiwania. 50(4). 250-260

Image Repository

Images

Others

Master ID 29693
Species ID 4002
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.
Share