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Bruguiera parviflora


Bruguiera parviflora

Family Name: Rhizophoraceae
Synonyms: Bruguiera ritchiei, Kandelia parviflora
Common Name: Lenggadai, Lenggadis, Mengkadai


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m), Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution South East Asia, India, Bangladesh, Samoa, Australia and the Solomon Islands
Native Habitat Shoreline (Mangrove Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Slender tree, average height reaching 10 - 15 m
Trunk Grey, fissured bark and slightly flanged base.
Roots Laterals roots which grow just below the surface and part of it sticking out of the mud in a "bent knee" position. Knee roots may be up to 30 cm tall.
Foliage Leaves pointed, 5.5 - 13 by 2 - 4.5 cm, elliptic, black dotted beneath and turning yellowish-green with age. 
Flowers Flower cluster consists of a 3 - 7, sometimes 10-flowered group. Calyx tubes are ridged, 7 - 9 mm long, 8-lobed, calyx lobes are straight and not curved.
Fruits Narrow, spirally rolled fruit, about 2 cm in length. Hypocotyl is cylindrical, smooth and curved, about 9 - 14 cm in length.
Habitat Found downstream to intermediate estuarine zones in the mid-intertidal region. Typically forms single species in areas that are not frequently inundated. Can also occur along tidal waterways and coastal fish ponds. Degradation of habitat threatened by construction of commercial and industrial purposes, such as shrimp farms and tourist resorts.
Associated Flora Often associated with Rhizophora species.
Etymology Latin Bruguiera, after J. G. Bruguieres (1750–1799), French expolorer. Latin parviflora referring to small flowers.
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( Used as firewood and charcoal)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Landscape Uses Coastal, Riverine

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Butterfly Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth), Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Water)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Lots of Water
Propagation Method Viviparious Propagule
Plant Growth Rate Remarks Slow growing


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Compound
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire

Non - Foliar and Storage

Mature Bark Texture Fissured
Root Type Underground (Tap Root), Aboveground (Knee Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Seed Colour(s) Green
Mature Seed Texture(s) Smooth
Seed Description Thin, elongated, pencil-liked propagules

Image Repository



Master ID 31864
Species ID 6265
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.