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Syzygium filiforme


Syzygium filiforme (Wall. ex Duthie) Chantaran. & J.Parn.

Family Name: Myrtaceae
Synonyms: Eugenia clavimyrtus Koord. & Valeton var. minor, Eugenia filiformis Wall. ex Duthie, Syzygium capillare Wall.
Common Name: Thread Eugenia, Kelat Merah, Kelat Manik, Kelat Jambu Air, Kelat Api, Kelat Manek, Gising, Kelat Belian, Kelat Lapis, Kelat Minyak


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 42 m


Native Distribution Southwest Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree that can grow up to 42 m tall, attain 210 cm in trunk girth size, with dense crown, drooping branches and slender twigs.
Foliage Its opposite, stalked leaves have leaf blades that are leathery, dark green, lance-shaped to egg-shaped or oval, 5–11 cm by 1.8–5 cm. Each leaf  blade has 1–2 veins running parallel to the blade margin, up to 7–16 pairs of side veins, and pointed blade tip.
Flowers It produces bisexual flowers with thread-like stalks. The flowers are white, 1.3–2.5 cm by 1.3–1.9 cm, and found solitary or in up to 10 cm long, 2–5 flowered clusters located at the axils of its leaves or ends of its twigs.
Fruit Its fleshy fruits are round to flattened-round, up to 1.5 cm across, and whitish-green when ripe.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests. It occurs locally in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve, and Pulau Tekong.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are probably pollinated by bats.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek syzygos, joined, referring to the paired leaves of this species; Latin filiforme thread-like, referring to its flower stalks
Ethnobotanical Uses Others: It is harvested for timber and used for house posts.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for planting along streetscapes, in parks and gardens for its dense crown, flowers and fruits.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Fruits)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White, Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Green, Green - Light Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Berry

Image Repository



Master ID 29726
Species ID 4035
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 22 February 2022.