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Allium fistulosum L.

Family Name: Amaryllidaceae
Synonyms: Porrum fistulosum
Common Name: Spring Onion, Scallion, Green Onion, Bunching Onion, Welsh Onion, 葱
Full Sun Moderate Water Herb or Spice Shallow Media Herbaceous Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.3 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.6 m

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Perennial herb with indistinct bulbs that grows in clusters. The base of the stem is slightly swollen. Leaves held erect. This plant was cultivated from a wild onion that may have been Allium altaicum.
Foliage Leaves are bluish-green, pointed hollow tubes (27 – 32 cm long, 0.5 – 0.7 cm wide at the base).
Flowers Flowers small and white, have stamens that extend well past the petals. Flowers arranged in round umbel inflorescences and borne on green, hollow stalks similar to the leaves.
Fruits Fruit initially green and becomes light brown and papery at maturity. Contains black seeds.
Others - Plant Morphology Propagation: Propagate by seed or division of plants.
Cultivation Although it is able to grow in semi-shade, the leaves tend to bend over. It is best grown under full sun in soil with good drainage and abundant organic matter. In Singapore, this plant grows continuously through the entire year.
Etymology The genus name “Allium” is Latin for garlic. The species epithet “fistulosum” is Latin for fistular and refers to the hollow tube structure of the leaves.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves)
Food (Herb and Spice)
[Others]: Food: Commonly added to Asian stir-fries as flavoring. Also used in soups and vegetable dishes. Both leaves and bulbs (white basal portion) are eaten. The leaves contain carotenoids that have antioxidant activity (eg, beta-carotene, lutein). Lutein was shown to improve the vision of patients with age-related macular degeneration, a disease that causes vision loss (Richer et al 2004).

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Easy to Grow, Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Shallow Media (8 -10cm)
Landscape Uses Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Seed, Division


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Linear)
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Truncate / Square
Typical Foliar Area Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 ), Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Herbaceous
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Umbel

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 30635
Species ID 4944
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 04 August 2022.