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Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi

Family Name: Flacourtiaceae
Synonyms: Flacourtia edulis Griff., Flacourtia euphlebia Merr., Flacourtia megaphylla Ridl., Flacourtia peninsula Elm., Flacourtia sulcata Elm.
Common Name: Indian Prune, Rukam Manis, 大叶刺篱木
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Caterpillar Food Plant Native to Singapore Fruit & Vegetable Ornamental Foliage Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 20 m


Native Distribution Hainan, Indochina, southern Thailand through Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Brunei to Papua New Guinea
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 20 m tall.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have leathery to almost leathery leaf blades that are red to brown when young, egg-shaped-oblong, oval to oblong-lance-shaped, 6.5–18 by 3–9 cm, and with toothed margins.
Flowers Its flowering clusters are finely covered with hair and found at the leaf axils. They bear few greenish-yellow flowers.
Fruits Its stalked fruits are globose to depressed globose, or drop-shaped, turning pink or dark red when ripe, 2–2.5 cm wide, and topped by a ring of styles.
Habitat It grows in evergreen primary, secondary, and teak forests, often along rivers, up to 2,100 m altitude. It occurs locally in Nee Soon Swamp Forest.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. It is the butterfly host plant and caterpillar food plant for the Leopard butterfly (Phalanta phalantha phalantha), Rustic butterfly (Cupha erymanthis) and Vagrant butterfly (Vagrans sinha sinha).
Etymology Latin flacourtia, commemorating Etienne de Flacourt (1607–1660), the director of the French East India company; Javanese rukam, the vernacular name of this species
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The plant is cultivated for its edible fruits for jam.)
Medicinal ( The juice of the fruits used for dysentery, dysmenorrhea, and diarrhea. The juice of the leaves is applied to inflamed eyelids.)
Timber & Products ( The wood is hard and used to make pestles or shafts in the Philippines.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Riverine
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Stem/Branch
Species record last updated on: 30 June 2021.