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Oryza sativa L.

Family Name: Poaceae (Gramineae)
Synonyms: Oryza communissima Lour., Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza ruribaris (Desv.) Steud.
Common Name: Padi, Paddy, Rice, 稻米

Rice is a widely cultivated staple in Asia. During Hindu festivals such as Deepavali, the Festival of Lights, rice grains are ground into powder, dyed in a variety of colours from blue to pink and used to create intricate designs on the ground called Rangoli. Besides being beautiful to look at, the rice paste is also traditionally an offering to small creatures like ants and sparrows to encourage harmonious coexistence.

Full Sun: 6-8h Lots of Water Fruit & Vegetable Annual Aquatic &Hydrophyte Grass & Grass-like Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Grass & Grass-like Plant (Tall Grass (Poaceae)), Aquatic & Hydrophyte (Waterside / Marginal)
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Chromosome Number 24

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form An annual grass, it can grow up to 50 to 130cm tall. It has a clumping growth form. 
Foliage The leaves are arranged in two ranks, the leaf sheaths initially enclosing each other, forming a pseudostem. The leaf blade has a scaberulous surface, margins and an acute apex. 
Stems The culms are erect and glabrous consisting of nodes and internodes. Each node gives rise to a single leaf. 
Flowers The flower inflorescence is a terminal panicle. The flowers are single, borne on a short pedicle. Each flower is bisexual with 6 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. 
Fruits The fruit is a caryopsis varying in size, colour and shape. 
Habitat A widely cultivated plant, It is grown in the tropics, subtropical and temperate areas with a frost-free period of more than 130 days.
Cultivation It is best grown under full sun, partially submerged in water in fertile, loamy soils. The optimum pH level of flooded soils is 6.5 to 7.0. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Seeds)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : A vital food crop, it is the staple food in the tropics especially in South-East Asia. The grains are usually cooked by boiling in water or by steaming and are usually eaten with vegetables, fish and meat. Flour made from rice is used in cake mixes, baby food, puddings, white sauces and cosmetics.  )
Timber & Products ( The rice hulls or husks are used as fuel, bedding and when charred, is used to filter out impurities in water and in the manufacture of charcoal briquettes. Rice straw is used in the manufacturing of straw boards, paper pulp and as animal feed and bedding. )

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Waterlogged Soils (Does not Drain Site), Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog
Thematic Landscaping Water Garden, Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Propagation Method Seed

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Caryopsis / Grain

Image Repository



Master ID 30848
Species ID 5218
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 03 November 2020.