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Dracaena porteri


Dracaena porteri Baker

Family Name: Asparagaceae
Synonyms: Pleomele porteri (Baker) N.E.Br.
Common Name: Jarum-jarum


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 1.5 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a short, little branched shrub, 0.6 - 1.5 m tall.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, unstalked, leaves have leathery leaf blades that are usually linear-lance-shaped with pointed tip and narrowed base, green, and 15–38 by 1–4 cm.
Flowers Its white flowers are 2 cm long, and occur in loose clusters of 2–3 on a branched inflorescence.
Fruit Its fruits are round, red, and about 1 cm in diameter.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests, often in wet areas. It occurs locally in Pulau Tekong, the Central Catchment Nature Reserve (including MacRitchie Reservoir, Lower Pierce Reservoir, and Nee Soon Swamp Forest), along Chestnut Avenue, and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated while its fruits and seeds are probably eaten and dispersed by birds or mammals.
Cultivation It may be suitable for parks. It can be propagated by seed and stem cuttings.
Etymology Greek dracaena, a dragon, referring to the bright red dried red resin, called dragon’s blood, obtained from various species including those of Dracaena; Latin porteri, commemorating Charles Porter, a botanical collector.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade, Full Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting (Semi-Hardwood)


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Sessile
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Linear)
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Acuminate
Foliar Base Attenuate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Inflorescence Type Panicle

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 31029
Species ID 5416
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 22 February 2022.