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Grypothrix salicifolia


Grypothrix salicifolia (Wall. ex Hook.) S.E.Fawc. & A.R.Sm.

Family Name: Thelypteridaceae
Synonyms: Cyclosorus salicifolius (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel., Pronephrium salicifolium (Wall. ex Hook.) Holttum

Grypothrix salicifolia is a non-native terrestrial fern, adapted to grow in fast-flowing waters. It has pinnate fronds held by a long stipe that is typically glabrous and smooth except the base where hooked hairs and rigid dark scales are found. Sori are elongated, found along the veins.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Ferns & Lycophytes (Non-Seed Vascular Plants) (Fern)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial


Native Distribution Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsula Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Riverine), Aquatic (Freshwater Pond / Lake / River)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a terrestrial fern that has adapted to fast-flowing waters (Rheophyte).
Foliage The frond is pinnate, firm, up to 18 pairs of leaflets measuring 30 - 80 cm in length. The blade is held on a long stalk, 20 - 60 cm long. While the stalk remains glabrous and smooth, hooked hairs and rigid dark scales are found at the base. Leaflets grow between 10 - 15 cm long, fertile leaflets tend to be slightly narrow measuring 0.6 - 1.2 cm wide, rarely to 2 cm in width. A bud may be present at the base of the leaflet pair at the tip.
Reproductive Parts - non-flowering plant The sori are elongated along the veins.
Others - Plant Morphology The rhizomes are short-creeping, bearing sparse hooked hairs.
Habitat Occurs on rocks, in and next to streams in forest, flood zone at 0 - 500 m altitude. <1>
Cultivation It can be propagated by spores.
Etymology The specific epithet 'salicifolia' refers to the appearance of the fronds, as they resemble Willow leaves (Salix spp.) 

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form
Landscape Uses Small Gardens, Riverine, Container Planting, Suitable for Hanging Baskets
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden, Water Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade, Full Shade
Water Preference Lots of Water, Occasional Misting
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Spore, Division, Aerial Plantlet


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Thin
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green, Purple
Young Flush Texture(s) Thin



<1> Holttum, R.E. (1959). Pronephrium. In: Holttum, R.E. (eds). ThelypteridaceaeFlora Malesiana. ser. 2, Pteridophyta, vol. 5, pt. 1, pp. 535-536, Leiden: Rijksherbarium. <1>

Image Repository



Master ID 31556
Species ID 5955
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 27 March 2023.