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Citrus japonica cv.


Citrus japonica cv.

Family Name: Rutaceae
Synonyms: Fortunella japonica
Common Name: Kumquat


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Compact
Maximum Height 2 m to 5 m


Native Distribution South Asia and Asia-Pacific
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A small compact tree, it can grow up to 5m tall. 
Foliage The leaves are arranged alternately along the stem and are lanceolate in shape with a dentate leaf margin. 
Flowers The 5-petalled flowers are white and fragrant and are borne in clusters or as a single flower. 
Fruit The fruit is small in size and ranges in shape from globose, obovate, round to oblong. It turns orange when ripe. The fruit is said to be sweet and acidic to taste. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Fruit or Vegetable): Kumquats are often eaten raw or added to salads. It may also be candied and eaten or used as garnishing for dishes or made into jam. 
Cultural / Religious: It is usually seen during Chinese New Year as the common name 'Kumquat' is derived from the Cantonese translation 'Gam Gat' which means gold and luck. The plant is thus, seen as a symbol of wealth and prosperity. Citrus japonica 'Fukushu' is one of the most popular cultivars used for the Chinese New Year Festival.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form, Fragrant (Flowers)
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Fragrant / Aromatherapy Garden, Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Seed, Grafting
Plant Growth Rate Remarks The plant has a slow growth rate. 
Propagation Method Remarks Kumquats are rarely grown from seed but are usually grown on the rootstock of Citrus trifoliata (Trifoliate Orange). 


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Thick
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire, Serrate / Toothed

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Grouping Solitary, Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Orange, Yellow / Golden
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Rough
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type

Image Repository



Master ID 31688
Species ID 6087
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.