Classifications and Characteristics
|Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
|Plant Growth Form
|Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
|Lifespan (in Singapore)
|Mode of Nutrition
|Sumatra and adjacent islands, southern Malaysia, to the Lingga Islands (including Singapore), and north-western Borneo
|Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Riverine)
|Preferred Climate Zone
|Local Conservation Status
|Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))
Description and Ethnobotany
|It is a tree up to 21 m tall.
|Its opposite, long-stalked leaves have thickly leathery leaf blades that are narrowly egg-shaped to oblong, and 7–20 by 3–6.4 cm. The secondary veins are numerous and parallel to each other.
|Its flowering shoots each bears 7-21 white flowers, and are 3–7 cm long.
|Its green-yellow fruits are round to egg-shaped, and 18–29 by 17–24 mm. Its seeds are 11–21 mm long.
|It grows in heath or peat swamp forests or forests near the sea, and lowland primary rainforest, up to 950 m altitude. It is occurs locally in Nee Soon Swamp Forest and Bukit Kallang.
|Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
|It can be propagated by seed.
|Greek kalos, beautiful; Greek phyllon, a leaf, referring to the plant’s beautifully-veined leaf blades; Latin lanigera, woolly, referring to the soft hairs characteristic of this species; Latin australis, southern; Latin coriaceus, leathery, as this variety was supposedly related, and found to the south of Calophyllum coriaceum
|Medicinal: Calanolide A isolated from the plant has been shown to be effective against HIV.
Timber & Products: The coarse-grained wood is used for making planks.
|This tree is suitable for parks, large gardens, and roadsides.
|Desirable Plant Features
|Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal, Riverine
Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal
|Seed or Spore Dispersal
Plant Care and Propagation
|Full Sun, Semi-Shade
|Plant Growth Rate
|Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
|Mature Foliage Colour(s)
|Mature Foliage Texture(s)
|Simple / Unifoliate
|Foliar Arrangement Along Stem
|Foliar Attachment to Stem
|Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
|Pinnate / Net
|Flower & Plant Sexuality
|Cluster / Inflorescence
Fruit, Seed and Spore
|Mature Fruit Colour(s)
|Green - Light Green
|Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit
|The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.