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Calophyllum lanigerum var. austrocoriaceum


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Status (botanical)

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 21 m


Native Distribution Sumatra and adjacent islands, southern Malaysia, to the Lingga Islands (including Singapore), and north-western Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 21 m tall.
Foliage Its opposite, long-stalked leaves have thickly leathery leaf blades that are narrowly egg-shaped to oblong, and 7–20 by 3–6.4 cm. The secondary veins are numerous and parallel to each other.
Flowers Its flowering shoots each bears 7-21 white flowers, and are 3–7 cm long.
Fruit Its green-yellow fruits are round to egg-shaped, and 18–29 by 17–24 mm. Its seeds are 11–21 mm long.
Habitat It grows in heath or peat swamp forests or forests near the sea, and lowland primary rainforest, up to 950 m altitude. It is occurs locally in Nee Soon Swamp Forest and Bukit Kallang.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek kalos, beautiful; Greek phyllon, a leaf, referring to the plant’s beautifully-veined leaf blades; Latin lanigera, woolly, referring to the soft hairs characteristic of this species; Latin australis, southern; Latin coriaceus, leathery, as this variety was supposedly related, and found to the south of Calophyllum coriaceum
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal: Calanolide A isolated from the plant has been shown to be effective against HIV.
Timber & Products: The coarse-grained wood is used for making planks.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping This tree is suitable for parks, large gardens, and roadsides.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal, Riverine

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Red
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 31972
Species ID 6374
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 July 2023.