Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Calophyllum wallichianum (Hend. & Wyatt-Smith) P. F. Stevens var. incrassatum

Family Name: Calophyllaceae
Synonyms: Calophyllum incrassatum Henderson & Wyatt-Smith
Full Sun: 6-8h Lots of Water Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Native to Singapore Roadside Tree / Palm Fragrant Ornamental Flowers Ornamental Foliage Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m), Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical
Maximum Height 36 m


Native Distribution Sumatra and adjacent islands, eastern Malaysia to Borneo (including Singapore), and Sulawesi
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 36 m tall, with slightly curved buds at the end of the twigs.
Foliage Its opposite, long-stalked leaves possess leathery leaf blades that are oblong to rather egg-shaped, and up to 27 by 7 cm, with a raised midrib above.
Flowers Its unbranched flowering shoots are axillary, up to 4 cm long, with each bearing 7–19 fragrant flowers.
Fruits Its fruits are oblong-round to oval, and up to 3 cm long, with a very small beak. Its pale green fruits turn reddish-brown when injured. Its pale brown seeds are broadly oval to rather round, 13–23 by 12–19 mm, and faintly wrinkled when dried.
Habitat It grows in well-drained lowland primary rainforest, and sometimes freshwater swamp forest, or mossy heath forests, up to 1,220 m altitude. It occurs locally along the Chestnut Cycling Track, and the vicinity of Upper Seletar Reservoir.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek kalos, beautiful; Greek phyllon, a leaf, referring to the plant’s beautifully-veined leaf blades; wallichianum, after the Danish botanist and surgeon, Nathaniel Wallich (1786–1854), originally Nathan Wolff, who contributed immensely to the knowledge of India’s flora; Latin incrassatus, thickened, referring to the thickened fruit stalk

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for streetscapes, parks and gardens.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form, Fragrant
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Fruits)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Lots of Water, Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Pink
Young Flush Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green - Light Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 31171
Species ID 5565
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 October 2020.