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Calophyllum macrocarpum


Calophyllum macrocarpum Hook. f.

Family Name: Calophyllaceae
Synonyms: Calophyllum horstii Boerl.
Common Name: Bintangor Bunut, Bintangor Rimba, Bentangur Batu, Bunut, Buru, Danko, Chuat, Tang Hon


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Oval, Irregular
Maximum Height 45 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Riverine, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a very tall emergent forest tree, up to 45m height. Crown somewhat irregularly pendulous, with drooping branches.
Trunk Up to 5m girth and more than 1m in diameter for mature trees. No buttresses. Bark yellowish-brown, exudes yellow to white sap when injured.
Foliage Its stalked, oppositely arranged leaves are oblong with entire leaf margins and prominent parallel secondary veins. Each leaf measures 10-24 cm long and 3-7 cm wide. Young leaves emerge reddish-brown with contrasting yellow mid-rib.
Flowers Its white-petaled flowers are 3 cm wide, borne on clusters of 6-10 in an inflorescence.
Fruits Its fruits are large fleshy drupes, up to 14 cm long and 7cm wide, ellipsoid- ovoid, with fragrant juicy pulp and single fibrous seed. Eaten by squirrels and other forest vetebrates in the wild.
Habitat It grows on hillsides, low undulating land, ridges, and seasonal swamp forests. It occurs locally at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. Its fruits are eaten by squirrels and other forest herbivores.
Cultivation Hardy species, tolerant of sandy to clayey soils. Propagate by seeds, stem cuttings or air-layering.
Etymology Genus epithet 'Calophyllum' derived from Greek terms 'kalos' (beautiful) and 'phyllon' (leaf), a reference to the ornamental foliage. Species epithet 'macrocarpum' means 'large-fruited', describing the tree's relatively large fruits.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Its fruits are edible, and has a scented juicy pulp. )
Timber & Products ( Its timber is very durable, regarded as one of the best produced by Calophyllum species. Used to construct houses, posts, stakes and masts, as well as to make household products like sago pounders.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for streetscapes, parks and gardens for its attractive young foliage and fragrant white flowers.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Poor Infertile Soils, Acidic (low pH) Soils, Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site)
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Riverine
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Moth Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water, Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Cuneate
Typical Foliar Area Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Remarks Reddish-brown

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Yellowish Brown
Mature Bark Texture Lenticellate
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green - Light Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Drupe

Image Repository



Master ID 29349
Species ID 3658
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 06 March 2023.